Bird Migration pp 300-318 | Cite as

The Physiology of Bird Flight

  • P. J. Butler
  • A. J. Woakes


Flight is the major means of transport in birds and the study of locomotion in these animals has an extra dimension compared with that in some other vertebrates, for many species of birds migrate twice a year over long distances, sometimes without stopping and sometimes at high altitude. Such efforts clearly impose large demands on the respiratory, cardiovascular and muscular systems.


Wind Tunnel Respiratory Frequency Reed Warbler Pectoralis Muscle Barnacle Goose 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Butler
  • A. J. Woakes
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

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