Oral Immunization and Secretory Immunity to Viruses
Available information concerning mucosal immune response to naturally-acquired or vaccine-induced viral infections is largely limited to the development of antibody responses. Limited information exists concerning the appearance and role of virus-specific mucosal T cell-mediated immune responses after oral or systemic immunization in humans. In general, naturally acquired infections, or immunizations by replicating vaccine viruses administered by the mucosal routes which mimic the route of natural infection are associated with the development of effective immune responses in the serum as well as secretory sites, and exhibit protection against mucosal reinfection and development of disease (Piedra and Ogra 1986). In view of the large surface area of the intestinal mucosa and the presence of greater mass of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), in comparison to the content of lymphoid tissue in the respiratory tract, genital tissue and other mucosal sites, it has been proposed that oral immunization may result in the development of higher magnitude of immune response in the respiratory and other mucosal sites than after immunization by the systemic routes or after direct immunization of other mucosal sites (Mestecky 1987). Recent studies carried out to examine this possibility are briefly summarized here.
KeywordsRespiratory Syncytial Virus Rubella Virus Oral Immunization Mucosal Site Inactivate Polio Vaccine
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