Oral Immunization and Secretory Immunity to Viruses

  • P. L. Ogra
  • E. E. Leibovitz
  • G. Zhao-Ri
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 146)


Available information concerning mucosal immune response to naturally-acquired or vaccine-induced viral infections is largely limited to the development of antibody responses. Limited information exists concerning the appearance and role of virus-specific mucosal T cell-mediated immune responses after oral or systemic immunization in humans. In general, naturally acquired infections, or immunizations by replicating vaccine viruses administered by the mucosal routes which mimic the route of natural infection are associated with the development of effective immune responses in the serum as well as secretory sites, and exhibit protection against mucosal reinfection and development of disease (Piedra and Ogra 1986). In view of the large surface area of the intestinal mucosa and the presence of greater mass of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), in comparison to the content of lymphoid tissue in the respiratory tract, genital tissue and other mucosal sites, it has been proposed that oral immunization may result in the development of higher magnitude of immune response in the respiratory and other mucosal sites than after immunization by the systemic routes or after direct immunization of other mucosal sites (Mestecky 1987). Recent studies carried out to examine this possibility are briefly summarized here.


Respiratory Syncytial Virus Rubella Virus Oral Immunization Mucosal Site Inactivate Polio Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ada GL, Leung K-N, Ertie H (1981) An analysis of effector T cell generation and function in mice exposed to influenza A or Sendai viruses. Immunol Rev 58:5–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrew ME, Coupar BEH, Boyle DB, Ada GL (1987) The roles of influenza virus haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein in protection: Analysis using vaccinia virus recombinants. Scand J Immunol 25:21–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baba K, Yabuuchi H, Takahashi M, Ogra PL (1982) Immunologic and epidemiologic aspects of varicella infection acquired during infancy and early childhood. J Pediatr 100:881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bastin J, Rothbard J, Davey J, Jones I, Townsend A (1987) Use of synthetic peptides of influenza nucleoprotein to define epitopes recognized by class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 165:1508–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bogger-Goren S, Baba K, Hurley P, Yabuuchi H, Takahashi M, Ogra PL (1982) Antibody response to varicella-zoster virus following natural or vaccine-induced infection. J Infect Dis 146:260–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bogger-Goren S, Bernstein JM, Gershon AA, Ogra PL (1984) Mucosal cell-mediated immunity to varicella zoster virus: Role in protection against disease. J Pediatr 105:195–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fishaut M, Murphy D, Neifert M, Mcintosh K, Ogra PL (1981) Bronchomammary axis in the immune response to respiratory syncytial virus. J Pediat 99:186–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gotch F. Rothbard J, Howland K, Townsend A, McMichael A (1987) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize a fragment of influenza virus matrix protein in association with HLA-A2. Nature 326:881–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mestecky J (1987) The common mucosal immune system and current strategies for induction of immune responses in external secretions. J Clin Immunol 7:265–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ogra PL, Karzon DT (1971) Formation and function of poliovirus antibody in different tissues. Progr Med Virol 13:156–193Google Scholar
  11. Ogra PL, Fishaut M, Welliver RC (1980) Mucosal immunity and immune response to respiratory viruses. In: Weinstein L, Fields B (eds) Seminars in Infectious Diseases, Vol III. Thieme-Stratton New York, p 225Google Scholar
  12. Ogra PL, Losonsky GA, Fishaut M (1983) Colostrum-derived immunity and maternal-neonatal interaction. Ann NY Acad Sci 409:81–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ogra PL (1984) Mucosal immune response to poliovaccines in childhood. Rev Infect Dis 6:S361–S368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Piedra PA, Ogra PL (1986) Immunologic aspects of surface infections in the lung. J Pediatr 108:817–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Salk D (1980a) Eradication of poliomyelitis in the United States. I. Live virus vaccine-associated and wild poliovirus disease. Rev Infect Dis 2:228–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Salk D (1980b) Eradication of poliomyelitis in the United States. II. Experience with killed poliovirus vaccine. Rev Infect Dis 2:243–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Salk D (1980c) Eradication of poliomyelitis in the United States. III. Poliovaccines-practical considerations. Rev Infect Dis 2:258–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Welliver RC, Kaul A, Ogra PL (1979) Cell-mediated immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection: Relationship to the development of reactive airway disease. J Pediatr 94:370–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yamada A, Ziese MR, Young JF, Yamada YK, Ennis FA (1985) Influenza virus hemagglutinin-specific cytotoxic T cell response induced by polypeptide produced in Escherichia coli. J Exp Med 162:663–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Zhaori G, Sun M, Ogra PL (in press) Characteristics of immune response to poliovirus virion polypeptides after immunization with live or inactivated polio vaccines. J Infect DisGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Ogra
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. E. Leibovitz
    • 3
  • G. Zhao-Ri
    • 4
  1. 1.Departments of Pediatrics and MicrobiologyState University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious DiseasesChildren’s HospitalBuffaloUSA
  3. 3.Pediatrics AKaplan HospitalRehovotIsrael
  4. 4.WHO fellow in the Division of Infectious DiseasesChildren’s HospitalUSA

Personalised recommendations