The Variance in Genetic Diversity Among Subpopulations is More Sensitive to Founder Effects and Bottlenecks Than is the Mean: A Case Study

  • P. M. Brakefield
Conference paper

Abstract

There are three widely-recognised effects of genetic drift on polymorphic traits which are associated with ‘bottlenecks’ or ‘founder events’ in populations. Rare alleles are expected to be lost, average heterozygosity to decline, and the variance among populations to increase. The theoretical work is summarized in Nei (1987). These effects have been documented many times in laboratory populations (e.g. Buri, 1956; Dobzhansky and Pavlovsky, 1957; Rich, Bell and Wilson, 1979; Wool, 1987). Information from natural populations is less extensive and has often involved allozyme variation, especially on islands or in newly-colonized mainland areas(e.g. Janson, 1987; Black et al., 1988; work cited in Wool, 1987). Most studies have, however, tended to concentrate either on the description of the loss of heterozygosity or rare alleles within populations, or on the increase in differentiation among populations. Moreover, many studies involving polymorphic enzyme loci tend to be based on comparatively small samples so that there is uncertainty about whether rare alleles are present or not in populations thought to have experienced genetic drift.

Keywords

Migration Europe 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Buri P (1956) Gene frequency in small populations of mutant Drosophila. Evolution 10: 367–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Black WC, IV, Ferrari JA, Rai KS, Sprenger D (1988) Breeding structure of a colonising species: Aedes albopictus ( Skuse) in the United States. Heredity 60: 173–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brakefield PM (1989) Genetic drift and patterns of diversity among colour-polymorphic populations of the Homopteran Philaenus spumarius in an island archipelago. Biol J Linn Soc (in review)Google Scholar
  4. Dobzhansky Th, Pavlovsky O (1957) An experimental study of interaction between genetic drift and natural selection. Evolution 11: 311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ford EB (1975) Ecological Genetics ( 4th Edn ). Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Halkka O, Halkka L, Raatikainen M, Hovinen R (1973) The genetic basis of balanced polymorphism in Philaenus ( Homoptera ). Hereditas 74: 69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Halkka O, Raatikainen M, Halkka L (1974) The founder principle, founder selection, and evolutionary divergence and convergence in natural populations of Philaenus. Hereditas 78: 73–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Halkka O, Raatikainen M, Halkka L (1976) Conditions requisite for stability of polymorphic balance in Philaenus spumarius (L.) ( Homoptera ). Genetica 46: 67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Halkka O, Raatikainen M, Halkka L, Lallukka R (1970) The founder principle, genetic drift and selection in isolated populations of Philaenus spumarius (L.) ( Homoptera ). Ann Zool Fennici 7: 221–238Google Scholar
  10. Harrison S, Murphy DD, Ehrlich PR (1988) Distribution of the bay checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha bayensis: Evidence for a metapopulation model. Am Nat 132: 360–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hutcheson K (1970) A test for comparing diversities based on the Shannon formula. J Theor Biol 29: 151–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Janson K (1987) Genetic drift in small and recently founded populations of the marine snail Littorina saxatilis. Heredity 58: 31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lees DR, Dent CS, Gait PL (1983) Geographic variation in the colour/pattern polymorphism of British Philaenus spumarius (L.) ( Homoptera: Aphrophoridae) populations. Biol J Linn Soc 19: 99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Levins R (1970) Extinction. Amer Math Soc 2: 75–108Google Scholar
  15. Nei M (1987) Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Nei M, Maruyama T, Chakraborty R (1975) The bottleneck effect and genetic variability in populations. Evolution 29: 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rich SS, Bell AE, Wilson SP (1979) Genetic drift in small populations of Tribolium. Evolution 33: 579–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Stewart AJA, Lees DR (1988) Genetic control of colour/pattern polymorphism in British populations of the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (L.) ( Homoptera: Aphrophoridae). Biol J Linn Soc 34: 57–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Thomas C (1985) Exploration of a drowned Landscape. Batsford, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Wade MJ, McCauley DE (1988) Extinction and recolonization: Their effects on the genetic differentiation of local populations. Evolution 42: 995–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wool D (1987) Differentiation of island populations: A laboratory model. Am Nat 129: 188–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Brakefield
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Population BiologyUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations