Advertisement

Prostaglandins (Eicosanoids) and Their Role in Ectothermic Organisms

  • T. Mustafa
  • K. C. Srivastava
Part of the Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology book series (COMPARATIVE, volume 5)

Abstract

Prostaglandins (PGs) are often mentioned in the context of mammalian physiology and pathophysiology. It is now known that PGs are present and play important roles in almost all mammalian tissues and fluids (Horrobin 1978). The term eicosanoids was introduced by Corey et al. (1980) to encompass various biologically active derivatives of eicosapolyenoic acids, especially arachidonic acid. The eicosanoid family includes PGs, thromboxanes (TXs), hydroperoxy- and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HPETEs and HETEs), the leukotrienes (LTs), and lipoxins (LXs). The term eicosanoids has not been used uniformally in this review. Terms like prostaglandins, thromboxanes, etc. have been preferred, and they appear at appropriate places in keeping with the tradition followed by various researchers who have contributed to the development of this area of research in biology and medicine. Although interest in the biological significance of these compounds was essentially based on the physiological studies in mammals traceable to the early part of this century, the PGs were not studied from non-mammalian organisms until the first report appeared of PGs in an invertebrate animal, the gorgonian coral Plexaura homomalla (Weinheimer and Spraggins 1969). Since then, occurrence of PGs in over 100 invertebrate species, several fish, and amphibian species has been reported.

Keywords

Arachidonic Acid Prostaglandin Biosynthesis Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Lipoxygenase Product Toad Bladder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson AA, Fletcher TC, Smith GM (1981) Prostaglandin biosynthesis in the skin of the plaice, Pleuronectus platessa L. Comp Biochem Physiol 70C:195–199Google Scholar
  2. Änggård E, Matschinsky F, Samuelsson B (1969) Prostaglandins: enzymatic analysis. Science 163:479–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Araki H, Lefer AM (1980a) Role of prostacyclin in the preservation of ischemic myocardial tissue in the perfused cat heart. Circuí Res 47:757–763Google Scholar
  4. Araki H, Lefer AM (1980b) Cytoprotective effect of prostacyclin during hypoxia in the isolated cat liver. Am J Physiol 238:H176–H178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong DT, Grimwich DI (1972) Blockade of spontaneous and LH induced ovulation in rats by indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis. Prostaglandins 1:21–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey JM, Bryant RW, Feinmark S J, Makheja AN (1977) Differential separation of thromboxane from prostaglandins by one and two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Prostaglandins 13:479–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandyopadhyay GK, Datta J, Ghosh S (1982) Synthesis of diene prostaglandins in freshwater fish. Lipids 17:755–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bang OH (1987) More on fish oil. N E J Med 316:624Google Scholar
  9. Beetens JR, Herman AG (1983) Vitamin C increases the formation of prostacyclin by aortic rings from various species and neutralizes the inhibitory effect of 15-hydroperoxy-arachidonic acid. Br J Pharmacol 80:249–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergström S, Danielsson H, Samuelsson B (1964) The enzymatic formation of prostaglandin E2 from arachidonic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta 90:207–210Google Scholar
  11. Berridge MJ (1983) Rapid accumulation of inositol triphosphate reveals that agonists hydrolyse polyphosphoinositides instead of phosphatidyllinositol. Biochem J 212:849–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berridge MJ (1984) Inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers. Biochem J 220:345–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhagya-Lakshami SK, Ramaiah TR (1984) Partial purification of prostaglandin synthase from silkmoth Bombyx mori L. Insect Biochem 14:725–728Google Scholar
  14. Blackwell GJ, Flower RJ (1983) Inhibition of phospholipase. Br Med Bull 39:260–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blackwell GJ, Flower RJ, Nijkamp FP, Vane JR (1978) Phospholipase A2 activity of guinea-pig isolated perfused lungs: stimulation and inhibition by anti-inflammatory steroids. Br J Pharmacol 62:79–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blackwell GJ, Carnuccio R, Di Rosa M, Flower RJ, Parente L, Persico P (1980) Macrocortin: a polypeptide causing the antiphospholipase effect of glucocorticoids. Nature (London) 287:147–149Google Scholar
  17. Blackwell GJ, Carnuccio R, Di Rosa M, Flower RJ, Langham CS, Perente L, Persico P, Russel-Smith NC, Stone D (1982) Glucocorticoids induce the formation and release of anti-inflammatory and anti-phospholipase proteins into the peritoneal cavity of the rat. Br J Pharmacol 76:185–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bolger PM, Eisner GM, Ramwell PW (1978) Renal actions of prostacyclin. Nature (London) 271:467–469Google Scholar
  19. Bonne C, Martin B, Watado M, Regnault F (1981) The antagonism of prostaglandins I2, E1 and D2 by prostaglandin E2 in human platelets. Throm Res 21:13–22Google Scholar
  20. Borgeat P, Samuelsson B (1979) Metabolism of arachidonic acid polymorphonuclear leukocytes, structural analysis of novel hydroxylated compounds. J Biol Chem 254: 7865–7869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bouffard RE (1979) The role of prostaglandins during sexual maturation, ovulation, and spermiation in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. M Sci Thesis, Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, CanGoogle Scholar
  22. Brady UE (1983) Prostaglandins in insects. Insect Biochem 13:443–451Google Scholar
  23. Breton B, Jalabert B, Foster A (1975) Induction de décharges des gonadotropes hypophysares chez la carpe (Cyprinus carpio) à l’aide du citrate de cisclomiphène. Gen Comp Endocrinol 25:400–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brotherton AFA, Hoak JC (1983) Prostacyclin biosynthesis in cultured vascular endothelium is limited by deactivation of cyclooxygenase. J Clin Invest 72:1255–1261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown JA, Bucknall RM (1986) Antidiuretic and cardiovascular actions of prostaglandin E2 in the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Gen Comp Endocrinol 61:330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bryant RW, Simon TC, Bailey JM (1982) Role of glutathione peroxidase and hexose monophosphate shunt in the platelet lipoxygenase pathway. J Biol Chem 257:14937–14943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bryant RW, Simon TC, Bailey JM (1983) Hydroperoxy fatty acid formation in selenium deficient rat platelets: coupling of glutathione peroxidase to the lipoxygenase pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 117:183–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bundy GL, Schneider WP, Lincoln FH, Pike JE (1972) The synthesis of prostaglandins E2 and F from (15-R)- and (15-S)-PGA2. J Am Chem Soc 94:2123–2124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Burch RM, Halushka PV (1982) Vasopressin stimulates prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis in toad bladder epithelial cells. Am J Physiol 243:F593–F597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Burr GO, Burr MM (1930) On the nature and role of fatty acids essential in nutrition. J Biol Chem 86:587–621Google Scholar
  31. Cabanac M, Le Guelte L (1980) Temperature regulation and prostaglandin E1 fever in scorpions. J Physiol 303:365–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cagen L, Qureshi Z, Nishimura H (1983) Metabolism of arachidonic acid by saline washed toadfish Opsanus tau red cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 110:250–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carroll KK (1986) Biological effects of fish oils in relation to chronic diseases. Lipids 21:731–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Carsten ME, Miller JD (1977) Effects of prostaglandins and oxytocin on calcium release from a uterine microsomal fraction. J Biol Chem 252:1576–1581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Casterlin ME, Reynolds WW (1977) Behavioral fever in crayfish. Hydrobiologica 56:99–101Google Scholar
  36. Casterlin ME, Reynolds WW (1978) Prostaglandin E1 fever in the crayfish Camborus bartoni. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 9:593–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Casterlin ME, Reynolds WW (1979) Fever induced in marine arthropods by prostaglandin E1 . Life Sci 25:1601–1604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cenedella RJ, Galli C, Paoletti R (1975) Brain free fatty acid levels in rats sacrificed by decapitation versus focussed microwave irradiation. Lipids 10:290–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Charo IF, Shak S, Karasek MA, Davidson PM, Goldstein IM (1984) Prostaglandin I2 is not a major metabolite of arachidonic acid in cultured endothelial cells from human foreskin microvessels. J Clin Invest 74:914–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Christ EJ, van Dorp DA (1972) Comparative aspects of prostaglandin biosynthesis in animal tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta 270:207–210Google Scholar
  41. Christ-Hazelhof E, Nugteren DH (1979) Purification and characterisation of prostaglandin en-doperoxide D-isomerase, a cytoplasmic, glutathione-requiring enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta 572:43–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Clare AS, Walker G, Holland DL, Crisp DJ (1982) Barnacle egg hatching: a novel role for a prostaglandin-like compound. Mar Biol Lett 3:113–120Google Scholar
  43. Clare AS, Walker G, Holland DL, Crisp DJ (1985) The hatching substance of the barnacle, Balanus balanoides (L.). Proc R Soc London Ser B 224:131–147Google Scholar
  44. Clare AS, van Elk R, Feyen JHM (1986) Eicosanoids: their biosynthesis in accessory sex organs of Lymnaea stagnalis (L). Int J Reprod Dev 10:125–131Google Scholar
  45. Cook BJ, Holman GM, Meola S (1984) The oviduct musculature of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae and its response to various neurotransmitters and hormones. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 1:167–178Google Scholar
  46. Corey EJ, Pyne SG (1983) Synthesis of a new series of potent inhibitors of thromboxane A2 biosynthesis. Tetrahedron Lett 24:3291–3294Google Scholar
  47. Corey EJ, Albright JO, Barton AE, Hashimoto S (1980) Chemical and enzymic syntheses of 5-HPETE, a key biological precursor of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS) and 5-HETE. J Am Chem Soc 102:1435–1436Google Scholar
  48. Crawford MA (1983) Background to essential fatty acids and their prostanoid derivatives. Br Med Bull 39:210–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Crisp DJ (1956) A substance promoting hatching and liberation of young in cirripedes. Nature (London) 178:263Google Scholar
  50. Crow RT, Liley NR (1979) A sexual pheromone in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). Can J Zool 57:184–188Google Scholar
  51. Destephano DB, Brady UE (1977) Prostaglandin and prostaglandin synthase in the cricket, Acheta domesticus. J Insect Physiol 23:905–911Google Scholar
  52. Destephano DB, Brady UE, Lovins RE (1974) Synthesis of prostaglandin by reproductive tissue of the male house cricket, Acheta domesticus. Prostaglandins 6:71–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Destephano DB, Brady UE, Woodal LB (1976) Partial characterization of prostaglandin synthase in the reproductive tract of the male house cricket, Acheta domesticus. Prostaglandins 11:261–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. DeWitt DL, Smith WL (1983) Purification of prostacyclin synthase from bovine aorta by im-munoaffinity chromatography. J Biol Chem 258:3285–3293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. DeWitt DL, Day JS, Sonnenburg WK, Smith WL (1982) Concentration of prostaglandin en-doperoxide synthase and prostaglandin I2 synthase in endothelium and smooth muscle of bovine aorta. J Clin Invest 72:1882–1888Google Scholar
  56. Diakow C, Nemiroff A (1981) Vasotocin, prostaglandin, and female reproductive behavior in the frog, Rana pipens. Hormon Behav 15:86–93Google Scholar
  57. Diczfalusy U, Falardeau P, Hammarström S (1977) Conversion of prostaglandin endoperoxides to C17-hydroxy acids catalyzed by human platelet thromboxane synthase. FEBS Lett 84:271–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Dietz TH, Graves SY (1981) Sodium influx in isolated gills of the freshwater mussel, Ligumia subrostrata. J Comp Physiol 143:185–190Google Scholar
  59. Egan RW, Gale PH, Kuehl FA (1979) Reduction of hydroperoxides in the prostaglandin biosyn-thesic pathway by a microsomal peroxidase. J Biol Chem 254:3295–3302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Feldberg W, Kellaway CH (1938) Liberation of histamine and formation of lysocithin-like substances by cobra venom. J Physiol 94:187–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Flower RJ, Blackwell GJ (1979) Anti-inflammatory steroids induce biosynthesis of a phospholipase A2 inhibitor which prevents prostaglandin generation. Nature (London) 278:456–459Google Scholar
  62. Flower RJ, Cheung HS, Cushman DW (1973) Quantitative determination of prostaglandins and malondialdehyde formed by the arachidonate oxygenase (prostaglandin synthase). Prostaglandins 4:325–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Freas G, Grollman S (1980) Ionic and osmotic influences on prostaglandin release from the gill tissue of a marine bivalve, Modiolus demissus. J Exp Biol 84:169–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Freas G, Grollman S (1981) Uptake and binding of prostaglandins in a marine bivalve, Modiolus demissus. J Exp Zool 216:225–233Google Scholar
  65. German JB, Bruckner GG, Kinsella JE (1986) Lipoxygenase in trout gill tissue acting on arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 875:12–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Goetz FW, Smith DC, Krickl SP (1982) The effects of prostaglandins, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and cyclic AMP on ovulation of brook trout, (Salvelinus fontinalis) oocytes. Gen Comp Endocrinol 48:154–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gorman RR, Lin AH (1983) Biology and biochemistry of thromboxane synthetase inhibitors. In: Samuelsson B, Paoletti R (eds) Advances in prostaglandin thromboxane leukotriene research, vol 11. Raven, New York, pp 235–240Google Scholar
  68. Gorman RR, Bunting S, Miller OV (1977) Modulation of human platelet adenyl cyclase by prostacyclin (PGX). Prostaglandins 13:377–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Granström E, Kindahl H (1978) Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. In: Frölich JC (ed) Advances in prostaglandin thromboxane research, vol 5. Raven, New York, pp 119–210Google Scholar
  70. Graves SY, Dietz TH (1979) Prostaglandin E2 inhibition of sodium transport in the freshwater mussel. J Exp Zool 210:195–201Google Scholar
  71. Gréen K (1969) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of O-methyloxime derivatives of prostaglandins. Chem Phys Lipids 3:254–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gréen K, Samuelsson B (1964) Prostaglandins and related factors: XIX. Thin-layer chromatography of prostaglandins. J Lipid Res 5:117–120Google Scholar
  73. Gréen K, Hamberg M, Samuelsson B, Smigel M, Frölich JC (1978) Measurement of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, prostacyclin and their metabolites by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In: Frölich JC (ed) Advances in prostaglandin thromboxane research, vol 5. Raven, New York, pp 39–94Google Scholar
  74. Gryglewski RJ, Panczenko B, Korbut R, Grodzinska L, Ocetkiewics A (1975) Corticosteroids inhibit prostaglandin release from perfused mesenteric blood vessels of rabbit and from perfused lungs of sensitized guinea pigs. Prostaglandins 10:343–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gupta OP, Lahlou B, Botella J, Porthé-Nibelle J (1985) In vivo and in vitro studies on the release of Cortisol from interrenal tissue in trout. I. Effects of ACTH and prostaglandins. Exp Biol 43:201–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hagen DV, Brady UE (1982) Prostaglandins in the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni. J Insect Physiol 28:761–765Google Scholar
  77. Hajjar DP, Weksler BB, Falcone DJ, Hefton JM, Tack-Goldman K, Minick CR (1982) Prostacyclin modulates cholesteryl ester hydrolytic activity by its effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells. J Clin Invest 70:479–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hamberg M, Hamberg G (1980) On the mechanism of the oxygenation of arachidonic acid by human platelet lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 95:1090–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hamberg M, Svensson J, Samuelsson B (1975) Thromboxanes: a new group of biologically active compounds derived from prostaglandin endoperoxides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:2994–2998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hamilton J, Karol RJ (1982) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of arachidonic acid metabolites. Prog Lipid Res 21:155–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hammarström S (1980) Enzymatic synthesis of 15-hydroperoxythromboxane A2 and 12-hydroperoxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid. J Biol Chem 255:518–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Handler JS (1981) Vasopressin-prostaglandin interaction in the regulation of epithelial cell permeability to water. Kidney Int 19:831–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hanel AM, Lands WEM (1982) Modification of anti-inflammatory drug effectiveness by ambient lipid peroxides. Biochem Pharmacol 31:3307–3311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hansen H (1976) 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase — a review. Prostaglandins 12:647–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hansen AE, Stewart RA, Hughes G, Soderhjelm L (1962) The relation of linoleic acid to infant feeding. Acta Pediat (Stockholm) 51 (Suppl 137):1–41Google Scholar
  86. Hassid A, Shebusky A, Dunn M J (1983) Metabolism by human renal enzymes: presence of 9-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in human kidney. In: Samuelsson B, Paoletti R (eds) Advances in prostaglandin thromboxane leukotriene research, vol 11. Raven, New York, pp 499–504Google Scholar
  87. Hemler ME, Lands WEM (1980) Evidence for a peroxide-initiated free radical mechanism of prostaglandin biosynthesis. J Biol Chem 255:6253–6261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hemler ME, Cook WH, Lands WEM (1979) Prostaglandin biosynthesis can be triggered by lipid peroxides. Arch Biochem Biophys 193:340–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Herman CA, McCloskey MM, Doolittle K (1982) Prostaglandins of one, two, and three series affect blood pressure in American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Gen Comp Endocrinol 54:491–498Google Scholar
  90. Herman CA, Zimmerman PR, Doolittle KD (1984) Prostaglandin synthesis in goldfish heart, Caraccius auratus. Gen Comp Endocrinol 54:478–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Higgs GA, Vane Jr (1983) Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Br Med Bull 39:265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hirata F, Schiffmann E, Venkatasubramaniam K, Salomon D, Axelrod J (1980) A phospholipase A2 inhibitory protein in rabbit neutrophils induced by glucocorticoids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:2533–2536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hirata F, del Carmine R, Nelson CA, Axelrod J, Schiffmann E, Warabi A, DeBlas AL, Nirenberg M, Manganiello V, Vaughman M, Kumagi S, Green I, Decker JL, Steinberg AD (1981) Presence of autoantibody for phospholipase inhibitory protein, lipomodulin in patients with rheumatic diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:3190–3194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Holland DL, East J, Gibson KH, Clayton E, Oldfield A (1985) Identification of the hatching factor of the barnacle Balanus balanoides as the novel eicosanoid 10,11,12-trihydroxy 5,8,14,17-eieosatetraenoic acid. Prostaglandins 29:1021–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Honn KV, Chavin W (1978) Temporal effect of prostaglandin E and F on human adrenal cAMP and Cortisol output. Life Sci 22:543–552Google Scholar
  96. Horrobin DF (1978) Prostaglandins: physiology, pharmacology and clinical significance. Book Press, Brattlebro, VTGoogle Scholar
  97. Horseman ND, Meier AH (1978) Prostaglandin and the osmoregulatory role of prolactin in a teleost. Life Sci 22:1485–1490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Humes JL, Sadowski S, Galavage M, Goldenberg M, Subers E, Bonney RJ, Kuehl FA, Jr. (1982) Evidence of two sources of arachidonic acid for oxidative metabolism by mouse peritoneal macrophages. J Biol Chem 257:1591–1594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Hwang DH (1982) Characteristics of the formation of platelet lipoxygenase product from endogenous arachidonic acid. Lipids 17:845–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Irvine RF (1982) How is the level of free arachidonic acid controlled in mammalian cells? Biochem J 204:3–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ito T, Ogawa K, Sakai K, Watanabe J, Satake T, Kamaya N, Hiraku S, Naito J (1983) Effects of a selective inhibitor of thromboxane synthetase (OKY-158) in human. In: Samuelsson B, Paoletti R (eds) Advances in prostaglandin thromboxane leukotriene research, vol 11. Raven, New York, pp 245–251Google Scholar
  102. Jalabert B, Szollosi D (1975) In vitro ovulation of trout oocytes: effect of prostaglandins on smooth muscle-like cells of the theca. Prostaglandins 9:765–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Johnson RA, Morton DR, Kinner JH, Gorman RR, McGuire JC, Sun FF (1976) The chemical structure of prostaglandin X (prostacyclin). Prostaglandins 12:912–928Google Scholar
  104. Johnston HH, Herzog JP, Lauler DP (1967) Effect of prostaglandin E1 on renal haemodynamics, sodium and water excretion. Am J Physiol 213:939–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Jörg A, Henderson WR, Murphy RC, Klebanhoff SJ (1982) Leukotriene generation by eosinophils. J Exp Med 155:390–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kapoor K, Toor HS (1979) The effect of clomiphene citrate on ovulation and spawning of in-domethacin treated carp, Cyprinus carpio. J Fish Biol 14:59–66Google Scholar
  107. Kinoshita T, Nimura Y, Shionoya S, Goto H, Ozawa T (1987) Predominance of prostaglandin D2 and I2 in the rat gastric mucosa: analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Biochem Int 14:303–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Korotchenko OD, Mishchenko TY, Isay V (1983) Prostaglandins of Japan sea invertebrates -I. The quantitation of group B prostaglandins in echinoderms. Comp Biochem Physiol 74C:85–88Google Scholar
  109. Kulmacz RJ, Lands WEM (1985) Quantitative similarities in the several actions of cyanide on prostaglandin H synthase. Prostaglandins 29:175–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kunigelis SC, Saleuddin SM (1986) Reproduction in the freshwater gastropod, Helisoma: involvement of prostaglandin in egg production. Int J Invert Reprod Dev 10:159–167Google Scholar
  111. Kurzrok R, Lieb C (1930) Biochemical studies of human semen. II. The action of semen on the human uterus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 18:268–272Google Scholar
  112. Lands WEM, le Tellier PR, Rome LH, Vanderhoek JY (1973) Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis. Adv Biosci 9:15–28Google Scholar
  113. Lands WEM, Culp BR, Hirai A, Gorman R (1985) Relationship of thromboxane generation to the aggregation of platelets from humans. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid. Prostaglandins 30:819–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lange AB (1984) The transfer of prostaglandin synthesizing activity during mating in Locusta migratoria. Insect Biochem 14:551–556Google Scholar
  115. Lee SC, Levine L (1974) Prostaglandin metabolism. 1. Cytoplasmic reduced NAD dependent and microsomal reduced NADP dependent prostaglandin E 9-ketoreductase in monkey and pigeon tissues. J Biol Chem 249:1369–1375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lefer AM, Ogletree ML, Smith JB, Silver MJ, Nicolau KC, Barnette WE, Gasic GP (1978) Prostacyclin: a potentially valuable agent for preserving myocardial tissue in acute myocardial ischemia. Science 200:52–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Leffler CW, Hanson RC, Schneider EG (1980) Effects of prostaglandins and prostaglandin precursors on the arterial pressure of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Comp Biochem Physiol 66C:199–202Google Scholar
  118. Lefkowitz RJ, Mullikin JD, Wood CL, Gore TB, Mukherjee C (1977) Regulation of prostaglandin receptors by prostaglandins and guanine nucleotides in frog erythrocytes. J Biol Chem 252:5295–5303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Leigh PJ, Cramp WA, MacDermot J (1984) Identification of the prostacyclin receptor by radiation inactivation. J Biol Chem 259:12431–12436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Levine L, Kobayashi T (1983) Detection of compounds immunologically related to arachidonic acid transformation products in extracts of invertebrates. Prostagland Leuk Med 12:357–369Google Scholar
  121. Levine L, van Vunakis H (1970) Antigenic activity of prostaglandins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 41:1171–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Lewis RA, Soter NA, Diamond PT, Austen KF, Oates JA, Roberts LJ (1982) Prostaglandin D2 generation after activation of rat and human mast cells with anti-IgE. J Immunol 129:1627–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Loher W (1984) Behavioral and physiological changes in cricket-females after mating. In: Engles W, Clark WH Jr., Fischer A, Olive PJW, Nent DF (eds) Adv Invertebr Reprod 3:189–201Google Scholar
  124. Loner W, Ganjian I, Kubo I, Stanley-Samuelson DW, Tobe SS (1981) Prostaglandins: their role in egg-laying of the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:7835–7838Google Scholar
  125. Loher W, Ganjian I, Kubo I, Stanley-Samuelson D, Tobe SS (1985) Location and synthesis of PGE2 an egg-laying stimulant of the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. In: Lofts B, Holmes WN (eds) Current trends in endocrinology. Hongkong Univ Press, pp 391–393Google Scholar
  126. Mai J, Goswami SK, Bruckner G, Kinsella JE (1981) A new prostaglandin C22-PGF4, synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3) by trout gill. Prostaglandins 21:691–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Malik KU, Wong PY-K (1981) Leukotriene C: the major lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid in dog spleen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 103:511–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Marshall PJ, Kulmacz RJ, Lands WEM (1987) Constraints on prostaglandin biosynthesis in tissues. J Biol Chem 262:3510–3517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Marumo F (1986) Role of inhibitory and stimulative effects of prostaglandins on vasopressin-stimulated osmotic water flow in the toad bladder. Jpn J Physiol 36:935–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Meijer L, Guerrier P, Maclouf J (1984) Arachidonic acid, 12 and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and phospholipase A2 induce starfish oocytes maturation. Dev Biol 106:368–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Meijer L, Brash AR, Bryant RW, Ng K, Mclouf J, Sprecher H (1986a) Stereospecific induction of starfish oocyte maturation (8R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. J Biol Chem. 261: 17040–17047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Meijer L, Maclouf J, Bryant RW (1986b) Arachidonic acid metabolism in starfish oocytes. Dev Biol 114:22–23Google Scholar
  133. Milton AS (1982) Prostaglandins in fever and the mode of action of antipyretics. In: Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 60. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 257–304Google Scholar
  134. Mizuno K, Yamamoto S, Lands WEM (1982) Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on fatty acid cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin hydroperoxidase activities. Prostaglandins 23:743–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Moncada S, Gryglewski RJ, Bunting S, Vane JR (1976) An enzyme isolated from arteries transforms prostaglandin endoperoxides to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet aggregation. Nature (London) 263:663–665Google Scholar
  136. Moncada S, Herman AG, Higgs EA, Vane JR (1977) Differential formation of prostacyclin (PGX and PGI2) by layers of the arterial wall. An explanation for the antithrombotic properties of vascular endothelium. Thromb Res 11:323–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Moneada S, Ferreira SH, Vane JR (1978) Bioassay of prostaglandins and biologically active substances derived from arachidonic acid. In: Frölich JC (ed) Advances in prostaglandin thromboxane research, vol 5. Raven, New York, pp 211–236Google Scholar
  138. Morris HR, Taylor GW, Piper PJ, Tippins JR (1980) Structure of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis from guinea pig lung. Nature (London) 285:104–106Google Scholar
  139. Morse DE, Duncan H, Hooker N, Morse A (1977) Hydrogen peroxide induces spawning in mollusks with activation of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase. Science 196:298–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Morse DE, Kayne M, Tidyman M, Anderson S (1978) Capacity for biosynthesis of prostaglan-din-related compounds: distribution and properties of the rate-limiting enzyme in hydrocorals, gorgonians, and other coelentrates of the Caribbean and Pacific. Biol Bull 154:440–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Murphy RC, Hammarström S, Samuelsson B (1979) Leukotriene C: a slow-reacting substance from murine mastocytoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:4275–4279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Murtaugh MP, Denlinger DL (1982) Prostaglandins E and F in the house cricket and other insects. Insect Biochem 12:599–603Google Scholar
  143. Nakao J, Ooyama T, Chang WC, Murota S, Orimo H (1982) Platelets stimulate aortic smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. Involvement of 12-L-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid. Atherosclerosis 43:143–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Narumiya S, Salmon JA, Cottee FH, Weatherley BC, Flower RJ (1981) Arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase from rabbit peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Partial purification and properties. J Biol Chem 256:9583–9592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Needleman P, Raz A, Ferrendelli J, Minkes M (1977) Application of imidazole as a selective inhibitor of thromboxane synthetase in human platelets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:1716–1720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Needleman P, Turk J, Jakschik BA, Morrison AR, Lefkowith JB (1986) Arachidonic acid metabolism. Annu Rev Biochem 55:69–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Nijkamp FP, Flower RJ, Moneada S, Vane JR (1976) Partial purification of rabbit aorta contracting substance-releasing factor and inhibition of its activity by antiinflammatory steroids. Nature (London) 263:479–482Google Scholar
  148. Nomura T, Ogata H (1976) Distribution of prostaglandins in the animal kingdom. Biochim Biophys Acta 431:127–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Nomura T, Ogata H, Ito M (1973) Occurrence of prostaglandins in fish testis. Tohoku J Agric Res 24:138–144Google Scholar
  150. Nugteren DH (1982) Arachidonic acid-12-lipoxygenase from bovine platelets. Meth Enzymol 86:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Oates JA (1982) The 1982 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Science 218:765–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Ogata H, Nomura T (1975) Isolation and identification of PGE2 from gastrointestinal tract of shark Triakis scullia. Biochim Biophys Acta 388:84–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Ogata H, Nomura T, Hata M (1979) Prostaglandin F2a changes induced by ovulatory stimuli in the pond loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 45:929–931Google Scholar
  154. Ogino N, Miyamoto T, Yamamoto S, Hayaishi O (1977) Prostaglandin endoperoxide E isomerase from bovine vesicular gland microsomes, a glutathione-requiring enzyme. J Biol Chem 252:890–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Ono K, Osada M, Matsutani T, Mori K, Nomura T (1982) Gonodal prostaglandin F2 profile during sexual maturation in the oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Mar Biol Lett 3:223–230Google Scholar
  156. Orloff J, Handler J, Bergström S (1965) Effect of PGEt on the permeability response of toad bladder to vasopressin, theophylline and adenosine 3′5′-monophosphate. Nature (London) 205:397–398Google Scholar
  157. Pace-Asciak C, Wolfe LS (1968) Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 152:784–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Pace-Asciak C, Wolfe LS (1971) A novel prostaglandin derivative formed from arachidonic acid by rat stomach homogenates. Biochemistry 10:3657–3664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Pagels WR, Sachs RJ, Marnett LJ, DeWitt DL, Day JS, Jeffrey S, Smith WL (1983) Immunochemical evidence for the involvement of prostaglandin H synthase in hydroperoxide-dependent oxidations by ram seminal vesicle microsomes. J Biol Chem 258:6517–6523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Palm CD, Levine BA (1987) Simultaneous preparation and extraction of prostaglandins from gastric tissue with separation and quantitation by high pressure liquid chromatography. J Liquid Chromatogr 10:881–897Google Scholar
  161. Pandey S, Stacey NE, Hoar WS (1973) Mode of action of clomiphene citrate in inducing ovulation of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Can J Zool 51:1315–1316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Partridge BL, Liley NR, Stacey NE (1976) The role of pheromones in the sexual behavior of the goldfish. Anim Behav 24:291–309Google Scholar
  163. Paulsrud JR, Pensler L, Whitten CF, Stewart S, Holman RT (1972) Essential fatty acid deficiency in infants induced by fat free intravenous feeding. Am J Clin Nutrit 25:897–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Peter RE, Billard R (1976) Effects of third ventricle injection of prostaglandins on gonadotropin secretion in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Gen Comp Endocrinol 30:451–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Peyraud-Waitzenegger M, Nomura T, Peyraud C (1976) Cardiovascular effects on PGE2 in the carp (Cyprinus carpio). In: Samuelsson B, Paoletti R (eds) Advances in prostaglandin thromboxane research, vol 2. Raven, New York, p 912Google Scholar
  166. Piomelli D (1985) Leukotrienes in teleost fish gills. Naturwissenschaften 72:276–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Piper J (1983) Pharmacology of leukotrienes. Br Med Bull 39:255–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Pohlman T, Yates J, Needleman P, Klahr S (1983) Effects of prostacyclin on short-circuit current and water flow in the toad urinary bladder. Am J Physiol 244:F270-F277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Reed GA, Brooks EA, Eling TE (1984) Phenylbutazone-dependent epoxidation of 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(α)pyrene. A new mechanism for prostaglandin H synthase-catalyzed oxidations. J Biol Chem 259:5591–5595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Reynolds WW, Casterlin ME, Covert JB (1976) Behavioural fever in teleost fishes. Nature (London) 259:41–42Google Scholar
  171. Rice JR, Zenser TV, Davis BB (1985) Formation of thioether conjugates of the bladder carcinogen ANFT catalyzed by prostaglandin H synthase. Carcinogenesis 6:585–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Rittenhouse-Simmons S (1979) Production of diglyceride from phosphatidylinositol in activated human platelets. J Clin Invest 63:580–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Rollins TE, Smith WL (1980) Subcellular localization of prostaglandin-forming cyclooxygenase in Swiss mouse 3T3 fibroblasts by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. J Biol Chem 255:4872–4875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Rome LH, Lands WEM (1975) Structure requirements for time dependent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:4863–4865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Rosendorff C, Cranston WI (1968) Effects of salicylate on human temperature regulation. Clin Sci 35:81–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Roth GJ, Majerus PW (1975) The mechanism of the effect of aspirin on human platelets. I. Acetylation of a particular fraction protein. J Clin Invest 56:624–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Roth GJ, Machuga ET, Strittmatter P (1981) The heme binding properties of prostaglandin synthetase from sheep vesicular gland. J Biol Chem 256:10018–10022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Rouzer CA, Scott WA, Hamill AL, Cohn ZA (1980) Dynamics of leukotriene C production by macrophages. J Exp Med 152:1236–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Saintsing DG, Hwang DH, Dietz TH (1983) Production of prostaglandins E2 and F2a in the freshwater mussel Ligumia subrostrata: relation to sodium transport. J Pharm Exp Ther 226:455–461Google Scholar
  180. Salari H, Braquet P, Borgeat P (1984) Comparative effects of indomethacin, acetylenic acid, 15-HETE, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and PW755C on the metabolism of arachidonic acid in human leukocytes and platelets. Prostagland Leuk Med 13:53–60Google Scholar
  181. Salmon JA, Smith DR, Flower RJ, Moneada S, Vane JR (1978) Further studies on the enzymatic conversion of prostaglandin endoperoxide into prostacyclin by porcina aorta microsomes. Biochim Biophys Acta 523:250–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Samuelsson B, Hamberg M, Sweeley C (1970) Quantitative gas chromatography of prostaglandin E1 at the nanogram level: use of deuterated carrier and muliple-ion analyzer. Anal Biochem 38:301–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Samuelsson B, Granström E, Gréen K, Hamberg M (1971) Metabolism of prostaglandins. In: Ramwell P, Shaw JE (eds) Prostaglandins. Ann NY Acad Sci 180:138–163Google Scholar
  184. Samuelsson B, Granström E, Gréen K, Hamberg M, Hammarström S (1975) Prostaglandins. Annu Rev Biochem 44:669–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Samuelsson B, Goldyne M, Granström E, Hamberg M, Hammarström S, Malmsten C (1978) Prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Annu Rev Biochem 47:997–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Samuelsson B, Borgeat S, Hammarström S, Murphy RC (1980) Leukotrienes: A new group of biologically active compounds. In: Samuelsson B, Ramwell PW, Paoletti R (eds) Advances in prostaglandin thromboxane research, vol 6. Raven, New York, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  187. Sato M, Dunn MJ (1984) Interactions of vasopressin, prostaglandins, and cAMP in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. Annu J Physiol 247:F423–F433Google Scholar
  188. Sato J, Jyujo T, Hirono M, Iesaka T (1975) Effects of indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in rats. J Endocrinol 64:777–779Google Scholar
  189. Schafer AI, Cooper B, O’Hara D, Handin RI (1979) Identification of platelet receptors for prostaglandin I2 and D2. J Biol Chem 254:2914–2917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Setty YBN, Ramaiah TR (1979) Isolation and identification of prostaglandins from the reproductive organs of male silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. Insect Biochem 9:613–617Google Scholar
  191. Setty YBN, Ramaiah TR (1980) Effect of prostaglandins and inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis in oviposition in the silkmoth Bombyx morí. Indian J Exp Biol 13:539–541Google Scholar
  192. Sheng WY, Wyche A, Lysz T, Needleman P (1982) Prostaglandin endoperoxide E2 isomerase is dissociated from prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase in renal cortex. J Biol Chem 257:14632–14634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Sheng WY, Lysz TA, Wyche A, Needleman P (1983) Kinetic comparison and regulation of the cascade of microsomal enzymes involved in renal arachidonate and endoperoxide metabolism. J Biol Chem 258:2188–2192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Shimizu T, Yamamoto S, Hayaishi O (1979a) Purification and properties of prostaglandin D synthetase from rat brain. J Biol Chem 254:5222–5228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Shimizu T, Mizuno N, Amano T, Hayaishi O (1979b) Prostaglandin D2 a neuromodulator. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:6231–6234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Shukla SD (1982) Minireview. Phosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase C. Life Sci 30:1323–1335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Siegel MI, McConnel RT, Porter NA, Selph JL, Traux JF, Vinegar R, Cuatrecasas P (1980a) Aspirin-like drugs inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism via lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase in rat neutrophils from carragenan pleural exudates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 92:688–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Siegel MI, McConnel RT, Porter NA, Cuatrecasas P (1980b) Arachidonate metabolism via lipoxygenase and 12 L-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid peroxidase sensitive to anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:308–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Singh AK, Singh TP (1976) Effect of clomid, sexovid, and prostaglandins on induction of ovulation and gonadotropin secretion in a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossili (Bloch). Endokrinologie 68:129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Smith WL, Lands WEM (1972) Oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids during prostaglandin biosynthesis by sheep vesicular glands. Biochemistry 11:3276–3285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Smith WL, Wilkin GP (1977) Immunochemistry of prostaglandin endoperoxides to C17-hy-droxy acids catalyzed by human platelet thromboxane synthase. FEBS Lett 84:271–274Google Scholar
  202. Smith WL, DeWitt DL, Allen ML (1983) Bimodal distribution of the prostaglandin I2 synthase antigen in smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem 258:5922–5926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Spector AA (1975) Fatty acid binding to plasma albumin. J Lipid Res 16:165–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Spies HG, Norman RL (1973) Luteinising hormone release and ovulation induced by the intraventricular infusion of prostaglandin Et into pentobarbitone-blocked rats. Prostaglandins 4:131–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Srivastava KC (1985a) Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ω 3) and linoleic acid are antiaggregatory, and alter arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets. Prostagland Leuk Med 17:319–327Google Scholar
  206. Srivastava KC (1985b) Transformation of exogenous arachidonic acid in human platelets in the presence of oleic- and eicosapentaenoic acids. Prostagland Leuk Med 18:31–37Google Scholar
  207. Srivastava KC (1985c) Ascorbic acid enhances the formation of prostaglandin Et in washed human platelets and prostacyclin in rat aortic rings. Prostagland Leuk Med 18:227–233Google Scholar
  208. Srivastava KC, Awasthi KK (1983a) In vitro effect of unsaturated fatty acids on the balance between thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin in the blood vascular system. Prostagland Leuk Med 12:449–459Google Scholar
  209. Srivastava KC, Awasthi KK (1983b) Separation and quantitative determination of radiolabeled prostaglandins, thromboxanes, 6-keto-prostaglandin F and other arachidonic acid metabolites produced in biological material. J Chromatogr Biomed Appl 275:61–70Google Scholar
  210. Srivastava KC, Mustafa T (1984) Arachidonic acid metabolism and prostaglandins in lower animals. Mol Physiol 5:53–60Google Scholar
  211. Srivastava KC, Mustafa T (1985) Formation of prostaglandins and other comparable products during aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of (1–14C)arachidonic acid in the tissues of sea mussels, Mytilus edulis L. Mol Physiol 8:101–112Google Scholar
  212. Srivastava KC, Tiwari KP, Awasthi KK (1982) A convenient TLC schedule for differential separation and quantification of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and hydroxy fatty acids formed from (1–14C)arachidonic acid in human blood platelets. Microchem J 27:246–253Google Scholar
  213. Stacey NE (1976) Effects of indomethacin and prostaglandins on spawning behaviour of female goldfish. Prostaglandins 12:113–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Stacey NE (1981) Hormonal regulation of sexual behaviour in teleosts. Am Zool 21:305–316Google Scholar
  215. Stacey NE, Goetz FW (1982) Role of prostaglandins in fish reproduction. Can J Fish Aqu Sci 39:92–98Google Scholar
  216. Stacey NE, Liley NR (1974) Regulation of spawning behaviour in the female goldfish. Nature (London) 247:71–72Google Scholar
  217. Stacey NE, Peter RE (1979) Central action of prostaglandins in spawning behaviour of female goldfish. Physiol Behav 22:1191–1196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Stacey NE, Cook AF, Peter RE (1979) Ovulatory surge of gonadotropin in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Gen Comp Endocrinol 37:246–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Stanley-Samuelson DW (1987) Physiological roles of prostaglandins and other eisosanoids in invertebrates. Biol Bull 173:92–109Google Scholar
  220. Stanley-Samuelson DW, Loher W (1986) Prostaglandins in insect reproduction. Ann Entomol Soc Am 79:841–853Google Scholar
  221. Stanley-Samuelson DW, Klocke JA, Kubo I, Loher W (1983) Prostaglandin and arachidonic acid and reproductive tissue from virgin and mated female crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. Entomol Exp Appl 34:35–39Google Scholar
  222. Stanley-Samuelson DW, Peloguin J J, Loher W (1986) Egg-laying in response to prostaglandin injections in Teleogryllus commodus. Physiol Entomol 11:213–219Google Scholar
  223. Stokes JB (1979) Effect of prostaglandin E2 on chloride transport across the thick ascending limb of Henle. Selective inhibition of the medullary portion. J Clin Invest 64:495–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Tan CH, Lam TJ, Wong LY, Pang MK (1987) Prostaglandin synthesis and its inhibition by cyclic AMP and forskolin in postpartum follicles of the guppy. Poecilia reticulata. Prostaglandins 34:697–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Taylor GW, Morris HR (1983) Lipoxygenase pathways. Br Med Bull 39:219–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Terragno A, Rydzick R, Terragno NA (1981) High performance liquid chromatography and UV detection for the separation and quantitation of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins 21:101–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Tobe SS, Loher W (1983) Properties of the prostaglandin synthase complex in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus. Insect Biochem 13:137–141Google Scholar
  228. Tocher DR, Sargent JR (1987) The effect of calcium ionophore A23187 on the metabolism of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in neutrophils from a marine teleost fish rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Comp Biochem Physiol 87B:733–739Google Scholar
  229. Tsunamoto K, Todo S, Imasuku S (1987) Separation of prostaglandins and thromboxane by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. J Chromatogr Biomed Appl 417:414–419Google Scholar
  230. Ullrich V, Graf H (1984) Prostacyclin and thromboxane synthase as P-450 enzymes. Trends Pharmacol Sci 5:352–355Google Scholar
  231. Van den Bosch H (1980) Intracellular phospholipases A. Biochim Biophys Acta 604:191–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Vanderhoek JY, Tare NS, Bailey JM, Goldstein AL, Pluznik DH (1982a) New role for 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Activator of leukotriene biosynthesis in PT-18 mast-basophil cells. J Biol Chem 257:12191–12195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Vanderhoek JY, Bryant RW, Bailey JM (1982b) Regulation of leukocyte and platelet lipoxygenases by hydroxyeicosanoids. Biochem Pharmacol 31:3463–3467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. van Dorp DA (1971) Recent developments in the biosynthesis and the analysis of prostaglandins. In: Prostaglandins. Ramwell P, Saw JE (eds) Ann NY Acad Sci 180:181–199Google Scholar
  235. van Dorp DA, Beerthuis RK, Nugteren DH, Vonkeman H (1964) Enzymatic conversion of all-cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids into prostaglandins. Nature (London) 203:839–841Google Scholar
  236. Vane JR (1978) The mode of action of aspirin-like drugs. Agents Actions 8:430–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Wakayama EJ, Dillwith JW, Blomquist GJ (1980) In vitro biosynthesis of prostaglandins in the reproductive tissues of the male housefly, Musca domestica L. Am Zool 20:904Google Scholar
  238. Wakayama EJ, Dillwith JW, Blomquist GJ (1986) Occurrence and metabolism of prostaglandins in the housefly, Musca domestica L. Insect Biochem 16:895–902Google Scholar
  239. Warso MA, Lands WEM (1983) Lipid peroxide in relation to prostacyclin and thromboxane physiology and pathophysiology. Br Med Bull 39:277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Watanabe T, Shimizu T, Narumiya S, Hayaishi O (1982) NADP-linked 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase for prostaglandin D in human blood platelets. Arch Biochem Biophys 216:372–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Watanabe K, Yoshida R, Shimizu T, Hayaishi O (1985) Enzymatic formation of prostaglandin F2 alpha from prostaglandin H2 and D2. Purification and properties of prostaglandin F synthetase from bovine lung. J Biol Chem 260:7035–7041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Weinheimer AJ, Spraggins RL (1969) The occurrence of two new prostaglandin derivatives (15-epi-PGA2 and its acetate methyl ester) in the gorgonian Plexaura homomalla: chemistry of coelentrates XV. Tetrahedron Lett 59:5185–5188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Wolfe LS (1982) Eicosanoids: Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and other derivatives of carbon-20 unsaturated fatty acids. J Neurochem 38:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Woodward JJ, Smith L, Casillas E (1981) Thrombocyte aggregation in rainbow trout. Comp Biochem Physiol 68A:457–466Google Scholar
  245. Yokoyama C, Mizuno K, Mitachi H, Yoshimoto T, Yamamoto S, Pace-Asciak C (1983) Purification and characterization of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase from rat lung. Biochim Biophys Acta 750:237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Zusman RM, Kieser HR, Handler JS (1978) Effect of adrenal steroids on vasopressin-stimulated PGE synthesis and water flow. Am J Physiol 234:F532–F540PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Mustafa
    • 1
  • K. C. Srivastava
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of BiologyOdense UniversityOdense MDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Community HealthOdense UniversityOdense CDenmark

Personalised recommendations