Frequency Standards Utilizing Penning Traps
Ion traps have a number of characteristics that make them attractive candidates for frequency standards . Ion confinement times from a few hours to a few days permit long interrogation times and therefore narrow linewidths and large line Q’s. In addition, ion traps typically do not suffer from the usual Perturbations associated with confinement. For example, collisions of hydrogen atoms with the confining walls of a hydrogen maser can produce fractional frequency shifts greater than 1 × 10−11 on the masing transition . Stark shifts due to the confining electrostatic field of a Penning trap can, in many cases, be made less than 1 × 10−15 [3,4].
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