Evolution of Castes in Insects

  • Bernhard Rensch


The evolution of organisms in the succession of generations has been primarilly achieved through the appearance of new hereditary variants with minor deviations along with the development of stable structures and functions. Harmful mutants were eradicated either immediately or in the subsequent generations through the process of natural selection while unharmful or advantageous ones usually survived. As this process continued, many new races and species developed which possessed structures and functions of a rational nature and which became increasingly independent from their environment. These evolutionary tendencies were also promoted through either geographical, ecological, physiological or genetical isolation of populations.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Rensch
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoologisches InstitutUniversität MünsterDeutschland

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