Transfer of Mitochondria Through Protoplast Fusion
The application of improved organelle or DNA isolation procedures and recombinant DNA technologies has led us to a more detailed understanding of higher plant mitochondrial genomes in the last decade. Mitochondrial genomes of higher plants are much larger in size than those of yeasts, fungi, and animals, and are variable, ranging from about 200 kb in Brassica and Oenothera to about 2400 kb in muskmelon (Ward et al. 1981; Leaver and Gray 1982; Levings 1983). Notwithstanding the larger size of plant mitochondrial DNA’s (mtDNA’s), the number of mitochondrial genes are thought to be similar compared with those of the other eukaryotes (Dawson et al. 1986; EcKenrode and Levings 1986). The mitochondrial genomes in some higher plants characterized so far, however, contain some direct repeat elements. Intramolecular recombinations through the direct repeats appear to produce the complex structure of plant mtDNA’s (Palmer and Shields 1984; Pring and Lonsdale 1985; Quetier et al. 1985).
KeywordsMitochondrial Genome Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Somatic Hybrid Protoplast Fusion Somatic Hybrid Plant
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Asahi T, Kumashiro T, Kubo T (1988) Constitution of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes in male sterile tobacco obtained by protoplast fusion of Nicotiana tabacum and N. debneyi. Plant Cell Physiol 29: 43–49Google Scholar
- Dudits D, Hadlaczky Gy, Levi E, Fejer O, Haydu Zs, Lazar G (1977) Somatic hybridization of Daucus carota and D. capillifolius by protoplast fusion. Theor Appl Genet 51: 127–132Google Scholar
- Kumashiro T, Kubo T (1986) Cytoplasm transfer of Nicotiana debneyi to N. tabacum by protoplast fusion. Jpn J Breed 36: 39–48Google Scholar
- Lonsdale DM (1987) Cytoplasmic male sterility: a molecular perspective. Plant Physiol Biochem 25: 265–271Google Scholar
- Maliga P (1986) Cell fusion to introduce genetic information coded by chloroplasts and mitochondria in flowering plants. In: Bogorad L (ed) Molecular developmental biology. Liss, New York, pp 45–53Google Scholar
- Maniatis T, Fritsch EF, Sambrook J (1982) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Lab, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Menczel L, Morgan A, Brown S, Maliga P (1987) Fusion-mediated combination of Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility with Brassica napus plastids using X-irradiated CMS protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep 6: 98–101Google Scholar
- O’Connell MA, Hanson MR (1986) Regeneration of somatic hybrid plants formed between Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum rickii. Theor Appl Genet 72: 59–65Google Scholar
- Quetier F, Lejeune B, Delorme S, Falconet D (1985) Molecular organization and expression of the mitochondrial genome of higher plants. In: Douce R, Day DA (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, New Ser, vol 18. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 25–36Google Scholar
- Vedel F, Mathieu C, Chétrit P, Pelletier G, Primard C (1987) Mitochondria) DNA variation in cytoplasmic male sterile somatic hybrids of Brassica napus. Plant Physiol Biochem 25: 249–257Google Scholar
- Zelcer A, Aviv D, Galun E (1978) Interspecific transfer of cytoplasmic male sterility by fusion between protoplasts of normal Nicotiana sylvestres and X-ray irradiated protoplasts of male-sterile N. tabacum. Z Pflanzenphysiol 90: 397–407Google Scholar