Genetic Manipulation: Generative Versus Somatic

  • J. Sybenga
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 9)


The objective of plant breeding is the production of a genotype or an adapted combination of genotypes that meet specific performance requirements. The means to realize this objective are the introduction and manipulation of genetic variation. By far the large majority of all plant breeding still depends on the generative cycle, although in some instances effective use has been made of the somatic phase at the plant level for the induction of variation by mutagenesis and polyploidization. The rapid and large-scale development of molecular and in-vitro cell techniques (see Bajaj 1986) is based primarily on the somatic phase, and application to the generative cycle lags far behind. It appears as if this will not change for a considerable period to come. It is not reasonable to expect that the new somatic approaches will ever be able to replace generative approaches in all or even most phases of plant breeding (Borlaug 1983), but in several instances it will soon be, or is already, necessary to make a choice. The increasing ease with which molecular and cell manipulations techniques can be applied will reduce the barrier against their application. Whereas a few years ago, shortage of capital and progressiveness were thought to be the main obstacles to the introduction of modern somatic techniques in practical breeding institutions, this is clearly changing. Some of these obstacles will remain, but the emphasis in the choice between molecular and cell biological somatic versus generative approaches will be placed more and more on the requirements of the breeding program and the real merits of the techniques.


Plant Breeding Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Somaclonal Variation Protoplast Fusion Extra Chromosome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Avivi L, Feldman M, Brown M (1982) An ordered arrangement of chromosomes in the somatic nucleus of common wheat, Triticum aestivum L. I and II. Chromosoma 86: 1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bajaj YPS (1981) Production of disease-resistant plants through cell culture — a novel approach. J Nucl Agric Biol 10: 1–5Google Scholar
  3. Bajaj YPS (ed) (1986) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry 2. Crops I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  4. Barclay IR (1975) High frequencies of haploid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum) by chromosome elimination. Nature 256: 410–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates GW, Nea LJ, Hasenkampf CA (1987) Electrofusion and plant somatic hybridization. In: Sowers AE (ed) Cell fusion. Plenum, New York, pp 479–496Google Scholar
  6. Beckett JB (1982) An additional mechanism by which B chromosomes are maintained in maize. J Hered 73: 29–34Google Scholar
  7. Bender K, Gaul H (1966) Zur Frage der Diploidisierung autotetraploider Gerste. Z Pflanzenzucht 56: 164–183Google Scholar
  8. Bennett MD (1982) Nucleotypic basis of the spatial ordering of chromosomes in eukaryotes and the implications of the order for genome evolution and phenotypic variation. In: Dover GA, Flavell RB (eds) Genome evolution. Academic Press, London, pp 239–261Google Scholar
  9. Bhatia CR, Viegas P, Bhagwat A, Mathews H, Notani NK (1986) Genetic transformation of plants. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Plant Sci) 96: 79–112Google Scholar
  10. Bingham ET (1980) Maximum heterozygosity in autopolyploids. In: Lewis WH (ed) Polyploidy. Biological Relevance. Plenum, New York, pp 471–489Google Scholar
  11. Birchler JA (1983) Chromosomal manipulation in maize. In: Swaminathan MS, Gupta K, Sinha U (eds) Cytogenetics of crop plants. MacMillan, India, pp 379–403Google Scholar
  12. Borlaug NE (1983) Contributions of conventional plant breeding to food production. Science 219: 689–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brar DS, Minocha JL (1982) Multiple chromosomal interchanges in pearl millet. Theor Appl Genet 61: 105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Broertjes C, van Harten AM (1988) Applied mutation breeding for vegetatively propagated crops. Dev Crop Sci 12. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaleff RS (1983) Isolation of agronomically useful mutants from plant cell cultures. Science 219: 676–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaleff RS, Parsons MF (1978) Direct selection in vitro for herbicide-resistant mutants of Nicotiana tabacum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 5104–5107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chase SS (1952) Monoploids in maize. In: Gowen JW (ed) Heterosis. Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, pp 389–399Google Scholar
  18. Cleland RE (1972) Oenothera — cytogenetics and evolution. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Cocking EC, Davey MR, Pental D, Power JB (1981) Aspects of plant genetic manipulation. Nature 293: 265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper DB, Sears RG, Lookhart GL, Jones BL (1986) Heritable somaclonal variation in gliadin proteins of wheat plants derived from immature embryo callus culture. Theor Appl Genet 71: 784–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cowell JK (1982) Double minutes and homogeneously staining regions: gene amplification in mammalian cells. Annu Rev Genet 16: 21–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crossway A, Hauptli H, Houck CM, Irvine JM, Oakes JV, Perani LA (1986) Micromanipulation techniques in plant biotechnology. BioTechniques 4: 320–334Google Scholar
  23. De la Pena A, Lörz H, Schell J (1987) Transgenic rye plants obtained by injecting DNA into young floral tillers. Nature 325: 274–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dellaert LMW (1979) Comparison of selection methods for specific mutants in self-fertilizing crops: theoretical approach. In: IAEA Symp on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes. IAEA, Vienna, pp 57–74Google Scholar
  25. Dennis ES, Bretell RIS, Peacock WJ (1987) A tissue culture-induced Adh 1 null mutant of maize results from a single base change. Mol Gen Genet 210: 181–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Vries JN (1985) Isolation of telotertiary compensating trisomics from telocentric translocation trisomics and telo-substituted translocation heterozygotes of rye (Secale cereale L.). Genetica 68: 47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Wet JMJ, de Wet AE, Brink DE, Hepburn AG, Woods JA (1986) Gametophyte transformation in maize (Zea mays, Gramineae). In: Mulcahy DL, Mulcahy GB, Ottaviano E (eds) Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doyle GG (1986) The allotetraploidization of maize. 4. Cytological and genetic evidence indicative of substantial progress. Theor Appl Genet 71: 585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Driscoll CJ (1981) Perspectives in chromosome manipulation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, Ser B 292: 535–546Google Scholar
  30. Dudits D, Maroy E, Praznovszky T, Olah Z, Gyorgyey J, Cella R (1987) Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 8434–8438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellerström S, Zagorcheva L (1977) Sterity and apomictic embryosac formation in Raphanobrassica. Hereditas 87: 107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Endo TR (1982) Gametocidal chromosomes of three Aegilops species in common wheat. Can J Genet Cytol 24: 201–206Google Scholar
  33. Evola SV, Burr FA, Burr B (1986) The suitability of restriction fragment length polymorphisms as genetic markers in maize. Theor Appl Genet 71: 765–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Feldman M (1988) Cytogenetic and molecular approaches to alien gene transfer in wheat. Proc 7th Int Wheat Genetics Symp CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. Galun E, Aviv D (1983) Cytoplasmic hybridization — genetic and breeding applications. In: Evans DA, Sharp WR, Ammirato PV, Yamada Y (eds) Handbook of plant cell culture, Vol 1. Macmillan, New York, pp 358–392Google Scholar
  36. Gengenbach BG, Green CE, Donovan CM (1977) Inheritance of selected pathotoxin resistance in maize plants regenerated from cell cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 5113–5117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gerstel DU, Burns JA (1966) Chromosomes of unusual length in hybrids between two secies of Nicotiana. Chromosomes Today 1: 41–56Google Scholar
  38. Gheysen G, Dhaese P, van Montague M, Schell J (1985) DNA flux across genetic barriers: the crown gall phenomenon. In: Hohn B, Dennis ES (eds) Genetic Flux in Plants. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, New York Tokyo, pp 11–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gohil RN, Kaul R (1981) Studies on male and female meiosis in Indian Allium. 2. Autotetraploid Allium tuberosum. Chromosoma 82: 735–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gottschalk W (1976) Die Bedeutung der Polyploidie für die Evolution der Pflanzen. Gustav Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  41. Green MM, Green KC (1949) Crossing-over between alleles at the lozenge locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 35: 586–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Griesbach RJ, Malmberg RL, Carlson PS (1982) Uptake of isolated lily chromosomes by tobacco protoplasts. J Hered 73: 151–152Google Scholar
  43. Gupta PP, Schieder O, Gupta M (1984) Intergeneric nuclear gene transfer between somatically and sexually incompatible plants through asymmetric protoplast fusion. Mol Gen Genet 197: 30–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gustafson JP, Lukaszewski AJ, Bennett MD (1983) Somatic deletion and/or redistribution of telomeric heterochromatin in the genus Secale and Triticale. Chromosoma 88: 293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hagberg A (1965) Use of induced translocations in directed production of duplications. In: The use of induced mutations in plant breeding. FAO, IAEA, Rome Suppl, Rad Bot 5 Pergamon, pp 741–752Google Scholar
  46. Hein T, Przewozny T, Schieder O (1983) Culture and selection of somatic hybrids using an auxotrophic cell line. Theor Appl Genet 64: 119–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hermsen JGT, Ramanna MS (1981) Haploidy and plant breeding. Philos Trans R Soc London, Ser B 292: 111–112Google Scholar
  48. Hermsen JGT, Ramanna MS, Roest S, Bokelman GS (1981) Chromosome doubling through adventitious shoot formation on in vitro cultivated leaf explants from diploid interspecific potato hybrids. Euphytica 30: 239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hermsen JOT, Verdenius J (1973) Selection from Solanum tuberosum group Phureja of genotypes combining high-frequency haploid induction with homozygosity for embryo-spot. Euphytica 22: 244–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoekema A, Hirsch PP, Hooykaas PJJ, Schilperoord RA (1983) A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir-and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid. Nature 303: 179–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hovenkamp-Hermelink JHM, Jacobsen E, Ponstein AS, Visser RGF, Vos-Scheperkeuter GH, Bijmolt EW, de Vries JN, Witholt B, Feenstra WJ (1987) Isolation of an amylose-free starch mutant in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Theor Appl Genet 75: 217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ihrke CA, Kronstad WE (1975) Genetic recombination in maize as affected by ethylenediamidetetraacetic acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Crop Sci 15: 429–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Janse J (1987) Certation between euploid and aneuploid pollen grains from a tertiary trisomic of rye, Secale cereale L. Genome 29: 353–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones DF (1939) Segregation of color and growth regulating genes in somatic tissues of maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 22: 163–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones GH (1967) The control of chiasma distribution in rye. Chromosoma 22: 69–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones GH (1974) Correlated components of chiasma variation and the control of chiasma distribution in rye. Heredity 32: 375–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jongedijk E (1986) The present state of research into the induction of apomixis in potato. In: Beekman ABG et al. (eds) Potato research of tomorrow. Proc Internat. Seminar, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Oct. 1985. Pudoc, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  58. Karp A, Bright SWJ (1985) On the causes and origins of somaclonal variation. Oxford Sury Plant Mol Cell Biol 2: 199–234Google Scholar
  59. Kasha KJ, Reinbergs E (1979) Achievements with haploids in barley research and breeding. Proc John Innes Symp 4: 215–230Google Scholar
  60. Kasha KJ, Séguin-Swartz G (1983) Haploidy in crop improvement. In: Swaminathan MS, Gupta PK, Sinha U (eds) Cytogenetics of crop plants. MacMillan, India, pp 19–68Google Scholar
  61. Khush GS (1973) Cytogenetics of aneuploids. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Koebner RMD, Shepherd KW (1986) Controlled introgression to wheat of genes from rye chromosome arm 1RS by induction of allosyndesis. 1. Isolation of recombinants. Theor Appl Genet 73: 197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Koebner RMD, Shepherd KW (1987) Allosyndetic recombination between a chromosome of Aegilops umbellulata and wheat chromosomes. Heredity 59: 33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Laat AMM de, Blaas J (1984) Flow-cytometric characterization and sorting of plant chromosomes. Theor Appl Genet 67: 463–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lange W (1971) Crosses between Hordeum vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L. II. Elimination of chromosomes in hybrid tissues. Euphytica 20: 181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Larkin PJ, Ryan SA, Bretell RIS, Scowcroft WR (1984) Heritable somaclonal variation in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 67: 443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Larkin PJ, Scowcroft WR (1981) Somaclonal variation — a novel source of variability from cell cultures. Theor Appl Genet 60: 197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lavania UC (1986) Genetic improvement of Egyptian henbane, Hyoscyamus muticus L. through induced tetraploidy. Theor Appl Genet 73: 292–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis WH (ed) (1980) Polyploidy. Biological Relevance. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Lukaszewski AJ, Gustafson JP (1983) Translocations and modifications of chromosomes in triticalex wheat hybrids. Theor Appl Genet 64: 299–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Maan SS (1975) Exclusive preferential transmission of an alien chromosome in common wheat. Crop Sci 15: 278–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Maliga P (1984) Isolation and characterization of mutants in plant cell culture. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35: 519–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McCoy TJ (1982) The inheritance of 2 n pollen formation in diploid alfalfa Medicago sativa. Can J Genet Cytol 22: 315–323Google Scholar
  74. Meister A, Bretschneider H (1977) Präferentielle Paarung der Chromosomen autotetraploider Gerste — mathematisches Modell. Kulturpflanze 25: 297–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mok DWS, Peloquin SJ (1975) The inheritance of three mechanisms of diplandroid (2n-pollen) formation in diploid potatoes. Heredity 35: 295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mouras A, Saul MW, Essad S, Potrykus I (1987) Localization by in situ hybridization of a low copy chimaeric resistance gene introduced into plants by direct gene transfer. Mol Gen Genet 207: 204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mujeeb-Kazi A (1981) Apomictic progeny derived from intergeneric Hordeum-Triticum hybrids. J Hered 72: 284–285Google Scholar
  78. Namai H, Sarashima N, Hosoda T (1980) Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization breeding in Japan. In: Tsumoda S, Hinata H, Gómez-Campo G (eds) Brassica crops and wild allies. Biology and breeding. Jpn Sci Soc Press, Tokyo, pp 191–203Google Scholar
  79. Nitzsche W (1980) Chromosome reduction by halogenized amino acids in Festuca-Lolium hybrids. Z Pflanzenzucht 84: 78–81Google Scholar
  80. Ohno S (1970) Evolution by gene duplication, vol XVI. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–160Google Scholar
  81. Ohta Y (1986) High efficiency genetic transformation of maize by a mixture of pollen and exogenous DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 715–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palmer JD, Shields CR, Cohen DB, Orton TJ (1983) An unusual mitochondrial DNA plasmid in the genus Brassica. Nature 301: 725–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Palmiter RD, Brinster RL, Hammer RE, Turmbauer ME, Rosenfeld MG, Birnberg NC, Evans RM (1982) Dramatic growth of mice that develop from eggs microinjected with metallothionein-growth hormone fusion genes. Nature 300: 611–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pandey KK (1978) Gametic gene transfer in Nicotiana by means of irradiated pollen. Genetica 49: 53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Patterson EB (1973) Genic male sterility and hybrid maize production. Proc 7th Meeting Maize and Sorghum Section, Eucarpia, ZagrebGoogle Scholar
  86. Peerbolte R (1986) The fate of T-DNA during vegetative and generative propagation. Diss Leiden, 218 ppGoogle Scholar
  87. Pirrie A, Power JB (1986) The production of fertile, triploid somatic hybrid plants (Nicotiana glutinosa (n)+N. tabacum (2n) via gametic somatic protoplast fusion. Theor Appl Genet 72: 48–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pijnacker LP, Walch K, Ferwerda MA (1986) Behaviour of chromosomes in potato leaf tissue cultured in vitro as studied by BrdC-Giemsa labelling. Theor Appl Genet 72: 833–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ramage RI (1965) Balanced tertiary trisomics for use in hybrid seed production. Crop Sci 5: 177–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ramulu SK, Verhoeven HA, Dijkhuis P (1988) Mitotic dynamics of micronuclei induced by amiprophos-methyl and prospects for chromosome mediated gene transfer in plants. Theor Appl Genet 75: 575–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Randall TE, Rick CM (1945) A cytogenetic study of polyembryony in Asparagus officinalis. Am J Bot 32: 560–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rao MK, Devi KU, Arundhati A (1989) Utilization of genetic male sterility in plant breeding. Plant Breeding (in press)Google Scholar
  93. Riley R, Chapman V, Johnson R (1968) The incorporation of alien disease resistance in wheat by genetic interference with the regulation of meiotic chromosome synapsis. Genet Res 12: 199–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Roman H (1947) Mitotic non-disjunction in the case of interchanges involving the B-type chromosome in maize. Genetics 32: 391–409Google Scholar
  95. Rose AM, Baillie DL (1979) A mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans that increases recombination frequency more than three fold. Nature 281: 599–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ross JG (1965) Somatic chromosome reduction and spectrum mutational effects after colchicine treatment of sorghum. In: The use of mutations in plant breeding. FAO, IAEA, Rome, pp 193–203, Suppl Rad Bot 5, PergamonGoogle Scholar
  97. Roth EJ, Lark KG (1984) Isopropyl-N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (CIPC) induced chromosomal loss in soybean: a new tool for plant somatic cell genetics. Theor Appl Genet 86: 421–431Google Scholar
  98. Rutishauser A (1967) Fortpflanzungsmodus and Meiose apomiktischer Blütenpflanzen. Protoplasmatologia V1, F3. Springer, Wien New York, pp 1–245Google Scholar
  99. Scholz F, Künzel G (1981) Induced chromosome and gene mutations for specific goals in barley genetics and breeding. In: Induced mutations: a tool in plant research. IAEA, Vienna, pp 23–35Google Scholar
  100. Sears ER (1956) The transfer of leaf-rust resistance from Aegilops umbellulata to wheat. In: Genetics in plant breeding. Brookhaven Symp Biol 9: 1–22Google Scholar
  101. Sears ER (1966) Nullisomic-tetrasomic combinations in hexaploid wheat. In: Riley R, Lewis KR (eds) Chromosome manipulations and plant genetics. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, pp 29–45. Heredity Suppl 20 ( 1965 )Google Scholar
  102. Shah DM et al. (1986) Engineering herbicide tolerance in transgenic plants. Science 233: 478–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shepard JF (1982) The regeneration of potato plants from leaf-cell protoplasts. Sci Am, May 1982, pp 112–121Google Scholar
  104. Shepard JF, Bidney D, Shahin E (1980) Potato protoplasts in crop improvement. Science 208: 17–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shillito RD, Saul MW, Paszkowski J, Müller M, Potrykus I (1985) High efficiency direct gene transfer to plants. BioTechnology 3: 1099–1100Google Scholar
  106. Simchen G, Starnberg J (1969) Genetic control of recombination in Schizophyllum commune: specific and independent regulation of adjacent and non-adjacent chromosomal regions. Heredity 24: 369–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sisodia NS, Shebeski LH (1965) Synthesis of complete interchange stocks in barley (H. vulgare L.) Can J Genet Cytol 7: 164–170Google Scholar
  108. Skiebe K, Jahr W, Stein M (1963) Bedeutungen von Valenzkreuzungen für die Polyploidiezüchtung. Z Pflanzenzücht 50: 26–33Google Scholar
  109. Smith M (1985) In vitro mutagenesis. Annu Rev Genet 19: 423–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stam P (1977) Selection response under random mating and under selfing in the progeny of a cross of homozygous parents. Euphytica 26: 169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sybenga J (1955) Variation in Hordeum vulgare L. and Trifolium repens L. after colchicine treatment. Diss Abstr 12: 294Google Scholar
  112. Sybenga J (1972) General cytogenetics. North Holland/Elsevier Amsterdam-London-New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Sybenga J (1973) Allopolyploidization of autopolyploids. 2. Manipulation of the chromosome pairing system. Euphytica 22: 433–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sybenga J (1982) Cytogenetic systems and chromosomal male sterility genes in hybrid rye breeding. Tagungsber Akad Landwirtschaftswiss DDR 198: 161–163Google Scholar
  115. Sybenga J (1983) Genetic manipulation in plant breeding: somatic versus generative. Theor Appl Genet 66: 179–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sybenga J,Rickards GK (1987) The orientation of multivalents at meiotic metaphase I. A Workshop Report. Genome 29:612–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sybenga J, Verhaar HM (1980) Chiasma patterns in a translocation derived duplication heterozygote of rye. Chromosoma 80: 147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Szabados L, Hadlaczky G, Dudits D (1981) Uptake of isolated plant chromosomes by plant protoplasts. Planta 151: 141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tsujimoto H, Tsunewaki K (1988) Gametocidal genes in wheat and its relatives. III. Chromosome location and effects of two Aegilops speltoides-derived gametocidal genes in common wheat. Ge-nome 30: 239–244Google Scholar
  120. Watanabe H (1962) An X-ray induced strain of ring of 12 chromosomes in Tradescantia paludosa. Nature 193: 603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Weller SC, Masiunas JB, Gressel J (1987) Biotechnologies of obtaining herbicide tolerance in potato. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry 3. Potato. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 281–297Google Scholar
  122. Wricke G (1986) Hybrid breeding in rye by means of self-incompatibility. Persson G (ed) Proc Eucarpia Meeting on Rye, Svalöv 1985, pp 267–278Google Scholar
  123. Wricke G, Weber WE (1986) Quantitative genetics and selection in plant breeding. W de Gruyter, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Yoshida H, Yamaguchi H (1973) Arrangement and association of somatic chromosomes induced by chloramphenicol in barley. Chromosoma 43: 399–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Sybenga
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsAgricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations