Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): Micropropagation

  • J. Blake
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 10)

Abstract

Despite the increasing production of soybean and palm oils over the last two decades, coconut oil remains an important product on the world market as it is one of only two commercial sources of short-chain fatty acids with 8–14 carbon atoms. Coconut oil is thus in direct competition with only one other such source, that being palm kernel oil. Coconut oil has a particularly high percentage (48%) of the C12 compound, lauric acid, which is in demand for the production of soaps and oleochemicals (Schwitzer 1985; Berger and Ong 1985). High quality soaps are particularly dependent on the inclusion of a percentage of coconut oil. A significant proportion of all coconut oil goes into the oleochemicals industry where the hydrophilic and hydrophobic qualities of the fatty acid and its derivatives are of particular importance for use in the production of surfactants and foam stabilizers for detergents, in cosmetics, shampoos and pharmaceuticals, as corrosion inhibitors, emulsifiers and wetting agents, and as plasticizers for PVC products.

Keywords

Surfactant Corn Foam Germinate Diesel 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerson RC (1984) Regulation of soybean embryogenesis by abscisic acid. J Exp Bot 35: 403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong SW, Francis D (1987) Cell and nuclear area RNA and protein content and chromosome counts in meristematic cells of secondary roots and callus of Cocos nucifera. Can J Bot 65: 547–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Assy Bah B (1986) In vitro culture of coconut zygotic embryos. Oleagineux 41: 321–328Google Scholar
  4. Bajaj YPS (1983) Cryopreservation and international exchange of germplasm. In: Sen SK, Giles KL (eds) Plant cell culture in crop improvement. Plenum Press, NY, pp 19–41Google Scholar
  5. Bajaj YPS (1984) Induction of growth in frozen embryos of coconut and ovules of citrus. Curr Sci 53: 1215–1216Google Scholar
  6. Banzon JA (1984) Harvestable energy from the coconut palm. Energy Agrie 3: 337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bavappa KVA (1982) Perennial oilseed plants, coconut and oil palms. Indian Farming November: 100–103Google Scholar
  8. Berger KG, Ong SH (1985) The industrial uses of palm and coconut oils. Oleagineux 40: 613–624Google Scholar
  9. Bhalla-Sarin N, Bagga SS, Sopory K, Guha-Mukherjee S (1986) Induction and differentiation of callus from embryos of Cocos nucífera L by IAA conjugates. Plant Cell Rep 5: 322–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blake J (1983) Tissue culture propagation of coconut, date and oil palm. In: Dodds JH (ed) Tissue culture of trees. Croom Helm, London, pp 29–50Google Scholar
  11. Blake J, Eeuwens CJ (1980) Inflorescence tissue as source material for vegetative propagation of the coconut palm. Proc Int Conf Cocoa and Coconuts, Kuala Lumpur 1978, pp 549–556Google Scholar
  12. Brackpool AL, Branton RL, Blake J (1986) Regeneration in palms. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, Vol 3. Academic Press, New York, pp 207–222Google Scholar
  13. Branton RL, Blake J (1983a) A lovely clone of coconuts. New Sci 98: 554–557Google Scholar
  14. Branton RL, Blake J (1983 b) Development of organized structures in callus derived from explants of Cocus nucifera L. Ann Bot 52: 673–678Google Scholar
  15. Branton RL, Blake J (1986) Clonal propagation of coconut. In: Pushparajah E, Chew Poh Soon (eds) Cocoa and coconuts: progress and outlook. Kuala Lumpur: Inc Soc Plant, pp 771–780Google Scholar
  16. Daly C (1985) Commercial aspects of the laurics market. Proc Symp Palm kernel and coconut oils. Leatherhead June 1985, Food Res Assoc FOSFA Int, pp 85–91Google Scholar
  17. Das PK (1985) Trends in coconut oil production and trade in the world. Oleagineux 40: 85–93Google Scholar
  18. D’Souza L (1982) Organogenesis in coconut embryo callus. In: Fujiwara A (ed) Plant tissue culture 1982. Marzuen, Tokyo, pp 179–180Google Scholar
  19. Eeuwens CJ (1976) Mineral requirements for growth and callus initiation of tissue explants excised from mature coconut palms (Cocos nucífera) and cultured in vitro. Physiol Plant 36: 23–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. FAO (1986) Production Yearbook Vol 39:1985. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher JB, Tsai JH (1978) In vitro growth of embryos and callus of coconut palm. In Vitro 14: 307–311Google Scholar
  22. Gupta PK, Kendurka SV, Kulkarni VD, Shirgurkar MV, Mascarenhas AF (1984) Somatic embryogenesis and plants from zygotic embryos of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) in vitro. Plant Cell Rep 3: 222–225Google Scholar
  23. de Guzman EV, del Rosario AG, Ubalde EM (1978) Proliferative growths and organogenesis in coconut embryo and tissue cultures. Philipp J Coconut Stud 3: 1–10Google Scholar
  24. Ignacio LF Jr (1985) Present and future position of coconut oil in world supply and trade. J Am Oil Chem Soc 62: 197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Iyer RD (1982) Embryo and tissue culture for crop improvement, especially of perennials, germplasm conservation and exchange-relevance to developing countries. In: Rao AN (ed) Proc COSTED Symp on Tissue culture of economically important plants, Singapore 1981, pp 219–230Google Scholar
  26. Jagadeesan M, Padmanabhan D (1982) Induction of rooting in cotyledon callus of coconut. Curr Sci 51: 567Google Scholar
  27. Karunaratne S, Kurkulaarachoh C, Gamage C (1985) A report on the culture of embryos of dwarf coconut. Cocos nucífera L. var. nana in vitro. Cocos 3: 1–8Google Scholar
  28. Kumar P Prakash, Raju CR, Chadra Mohan M, Iyer RD (1985) Induction and maintenance of friable callus from the cellular endosperm of Cocos nucífera L. Plant Sci 40: 203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maarsen JW (1985) Edible and uses of coconut and palm kernel oils. In: Proc Symp Palm kernel and coconut oils. Leatherhead, June 1985, Food Res Assoc FOSFA Int, pp 53–60Google Scholar
  30. Malijan LC, del Rosario AG (1986) Photosynthetic capacity in embryo-cultured coconut seedlings during acclimation to greenhouse conditions. In: Int Congr plant tissue and cell culture. Abstr Univ Minnesota, Minneapolis, p 280Google Scholar
  31. Mendoza EMT, Samonte JL, Mujer CV (1985) Galactomannan metabolism in developing normal and makapuno coconut endosperms. Trans Nat Acad Sci Tech (Phils) 7: 237–247Google Scholar
  32. Meunier J, Le Saint JP, Gascon JP, de Nuce de Lamothe M (1986) Recent advances in genetic improvement of coconut yield. In: Pushparajah E, Chew Poh Soon (eds) Cocoa and coconuts: progress and outlook. Kuala Lumpur: Inc Soc Plant, pp 719–732Google Scholar
  33. Monfort S (1985) Androgenesis of coconut, embryos from anther culture. Pflanzenzuecht 94: 251–254Google Scholar
  34. Mujer CV, Ramirez DA, Mendoza EMT (1984 a) a-D-galactosidase deficiency in coconut endosperm: its possible pleiotropic effects in makapuno. Phytochemistry 23: 893–894Google Scholar
  35. Mujer CV, Ramirez DA, Mendoza EMT (1984b) Coconut a-D-galactosidase isoenzymes: isolation, purification and characterization. Phytochemistry 23: 1251–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nyman LP, Gonzales CJ, Arditti J (1983) Reversible structural changes associated with callus formation and plantlet development from aseptically cultured shoots of Taro ( Colocasia esculenta var antiquorum ). Ann Bot 51: 279–286Google Scholar
  37. Ohler JG (1984) Coconut, tree of life. FAO Plant production and protection Paper 57: FAO RomeGoogle Scholar
  38. Pannetier C, Buffard-Morel J (1982) First results of somatic embryo production from leaf tissue of coconut, Cocos nucífera L. Oleagineux 37: 349–354Google Scholar
  39. Pannetier C, Buffard-Morel J (1986) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucífera L.) In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry Vol 1. Trees. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 430–450Google Scholar
  40. Raju CR, Kumar PP, Chandramohan M, Iyer RD (1984) Coconut plantlets from leaf tissue cultures. J Plant Crops 12: 75–78Google Scholar
  41. del Rosario AG, de Guzman EV (1982) The status of plant tissue culture in the Philippines. In: Rao AN (ed) Proc COSTED Symp on Tiss Cult of Economically Important Plants. Singapore 1981, pp 293–294Google Scholar
  42. Santos GA (1986) Genetic improvement of coconut genotypes: a review of past and present methods. Philipp J Coco Stud XI: 24–30Google Scholar
  43. Schwitzer MK (1985) Technical end uses of palm kernel and coconut oils. Proc Symp Palm kernel and coconut oils. Leatherhead June 1985, Food Res Assoc FOSFA Int, pp 42–51Google Scholar
  44. Smith BG (1986) Tissue culture of Cocos nucífera - biochemical changes preceding embryogenesis. In: Pushparajah E, Chew Poh Soon (eds) Cocoa and coconuts: progress and outlook. Kuala Lumpur: Inc Soc Plant, pp 781–786Google Scholar
  45. Tahardi S (1985) Organogenesis in hybrid coconut embryo and tissue cultures. Poster Abstract Symp In vitro problems related to mass propagation of horticultural plants. Gembloux, Belgium 16–20 Sept, 1985Google Scholar
  46. Thanh-Tuyen NJ, Dionzon MN (1986) Callus initiation and development of somatic embryos from cultured embryos of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) In: Int Congr plant tiss and cell culture. Abstr, Univ Minnesota, p 193Google Scholar
  47. Tisserat B (1984) Clonal propagation: Palms. Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic genetics of plants. Academic Press 1: 74–81Google Scholar
  48. Vasil V, Vasil IK (1981) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from suspension cultures of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum.) Ann Bot 47: 669–678Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Blake
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit for Advanced Propagation Systems, Dept. of HorticultureLondon University, Wye CollegeWye, Ashford, KentUK

Personalised recommendations