Improvement of In Situ Renal Protection Against Complete Ischemia Through the Replacement of Chloride by Aspartate in the HTK Solution of Bretschneider

  • M. Kallerhoff
  • M. Blech
  • G. Kehrer
  • M. Langheinrich
  • U. Helmchen
  • H. J. Bretschneider
  • R. H. Ringert
Conference paper


The cardioplegia solution, HTK (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) (Bretschneider et al. 1975, 1984; Bretschneider 1980), was primarily developed to improve myocardial protection, as compared with periods of ischemia, during artificial cardiac arrest in open heart surgery. It has since become a routine clinical procedure (Preusse et al. 1987). According to our results, this solution also significantly improves ischemic tolerance of kidneys (Kallerhoff et al. 1985a, b, 1986, 1987c). The superiority over simple ischemia or over the Euro Collins solution holds for “cold” as well as for “warm” ischemia (Kallerhoff et al. 1988a). Renal ischemic tolerance was increased from 15–20 min to 2 h at normothermia (Kallerhoff et al. 1986). There have now been several clinical applications of this method (Blech et al. 1988; Kallerhoff et al. 1988b).


Glomerular Filtration Rate Proximal Tubular Cell Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Period Renal Protection 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kallerhoff
    • 1
  • M. Blech
    • 1
  • G. Kehrer
    • 2
  • M. Langheinrich
    • 2
  • U. Helmchen
    • 3
  • H. J. Bretschneider
    • 2
  • R. H. Ringert
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of UrologyUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Dept. of PhysiologyUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  3. 3.Dept. of PathologyUniversity of HamburgHamburg 20Germany

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