The Effects of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Evaporite Minerals

  • Barbara Javor
Part of the Brock/Springer Series in Contemporary Bioscience book series (BROCK/SPRINGER)


Because evaporites are salts precipitated from electrolyte solutions, it logically follows that the physical chemistry of natural brines should be similar to that of pure solutions of mixed electrolytes prepared in the laboratory. However, such laboratory models do not acknowledge the contribution of organisms to brine chemistry, and thus they ignore the potential role of dissolved organic matter (DOC) as natural chelators or as competitive, inhibitory, or catalytic substances. The role DOC plays in calcium carbonate and gypsum precipitation is much better known than its role in the formation of more economically important halite and potash minerals. This gap in knowledge will remain until more is known about the types and concentrations of DOC in natural brines saturated with respect to these minerals. The following discussion outlines the known or presumed role of DOC in modifying the nature of several evaporite minerals.


Total Alkalinity Crystal Morphology Sedimentary Petrology Gypsum Crystal Evaporite Mineral 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baha Al-Deen, B. and Baha Al-Deen, A.H. 1972. Posible efecto de microalgas en la forma de cristalización de cloruro de sodio en la Salina de Araya. Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente 11: 35–38.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, P.A. and Kastner, M. 1981. Constraints on the formation of sedimentary dolomite. Science 213: 214–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barcelona, M.J. and Atwood, D.K. 1978. Gypsum-organic interactions in natural sea-water: effect of organics on precipitation kinetics and crystal morphology. Marine Chemistry 6: 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barcelona, M.J. and Atwood, D.K. 1979. Gypsum-organic interactions in the marine environment: sorption of fatty acids and hydrocarbons. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 43: 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben-Yaakov, S. and Kaplan, I.R. 1969. Determination of carbonate saturation of sea-water with a carbonate saturometer. Limnology and Oceanography 14: 874–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berner, R.A. 1975. The role of magnesium in the crystal growth of calcite and aragonite from sea water. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 39: 489–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borchert, H. and Muir, R.O. 1964. Salt Deposits. The Origin, Metamorphism and Deformation of Evaporites. D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, 338 p.Google Scholar
  8. Braitsch, O. 1971. Salt Deposits. Their Origin and Composition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 297 p.Google Scholar
  9. Chave, K. 1965. Carbonates: association with organic matter in surface seawater. Science 148: 1723–1724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chave, K. and Suess, E. 1967. Suspended minerals in seawater. Transactions of the New York Academy of Science, ser. 2, vol. 29: 991–1000.Google Scholar
  11. Chave, K. and Suess, E. 1970. Calcium carbonate saturation in seawater: effects of dissolved organic matter. Limnology and Oceanography 15: 633–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cody, R.D. 1979. Lenticular gypsum: occurrences in nature, and experimental determinations of effects of soluble green plant material on its formation. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 49: 1015–1028.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, P.J., Ferguson, J. and Bubela, B. 1975. Dolomite and organic material. Nature (London) 255: 472–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garrels, R.M. and Thompson, M.E. 1962. A chemical model for sea water at 25°C and one atmosphere total pressure. American Journal of Science 260: 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gebelein, C.D. and Hoffman, P. 1973. Algal origin of dolomitic laminations in stromatolitic limestone. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 43: 603–613.Google Scholar
  16. Giesel, W. 1972. Outbursts of carbon dioxide in potash mines—fundamentals and possibilities of forecast, p. 235–239 in Richter-Bernburg, G. (editor), Geology of Saline Deposits. Unesco, Paris.Google Scholar
  17. Gunatilaka, A., Saleh, A., Al-Temeemi, A. and Nassar, N. 1984. Occurrence of subtidal dolomite in a hypersaline lagoon, Kuwait. Nature (London) 311: 450–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gunatilaka, A., Al-Zamel, A., Shearman, D. and Reda, A. 1987. A spherulitic fabric in selectively dolomitized siliciclastic crustacean burrows, northern Kuwait. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 57: 922–927.Google Scholar
  19. Hardie, LA 1987. Perspectives. Dolomitization: a critical view of some current views. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 57: 166–183.Google Scholar
  20. Javor, B.J. 1979. Ecology, Physiology, and Carbonate Chemistry of Blue-Green Algal Mats, Laguna Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Oregon, Eugene. 260 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Javor, B.J. 1983. Nutrients and ecology of the Western Salt and Exportadora de Sal saltern brines, pp. 195–205 in Schreiber, B.C. and Harner, H.L. (editors), Sixth International Symposium on Salt, vol. 1, The Salt Institute, Toronto.Google Scholar
  22. Kastner, M. 1984. Control of dolomite formation. Nature (London) 311: 410–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kitano, Y. et al. 1969. Effects of organic matter on solubilities and crystal form of carbonates. American Zoologist 9: 681–688.Google Scholar
  24. Lazar, B., Starinsky, A., Katz, A., Sass, E. and Ben-Yaakov, S. 1983. The carbonate system in hypersaline solutions: alkalinity and CaCO3 solubility of evaporated seawater. Limnology and Oceanography 28: 978–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meyers, P.A. and Quinn, J.G. 1971. Interaction between fatty acids and calcite in seawater. Limnology and Oceanography 16: 992–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Milone, M. and Ferrero, F. 1947. The relations between surface tension and crystalline habit. II. Gazzetta Chimica Italiana 77: 348–352.Google Scholar
  27. Mitterer, R.M. 1968. Amino acid composition of organic matrix in calcareous oolites. Science 162: 1498–1499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mitterer, R.M. 1972. Biogeochemistry of aragonite mud and oolites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 36: 1407–1422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Noyes, R. 1966. Potash and Potassium Fertilizers. Noyes Development Corporation. Park Ridge. 210 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Otsuki, A. and Wetzel, R.G. 1973. Interaction of yellow organic acids with CaCO3 in freshwater. Limnology and Oceanography 18: 490–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ploss, R.S. 1964. Sodium chloride: modification of crystal habit by chemical agents. Science 144: 169–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pytkowicz, R.M. 1971. Sand-seawater interactions in Bermuda beaches. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 35: 509–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pytkowicz, R.M. 1975. Some trends in marine chemistry and geochemistry. Earth-Science Reviews 11: 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shuman, A.C. 1965. Gross imperfections and habit modification in salt crystals, pp. 246–253 in Rau, J.L. (editor), Second Symposium on Salt, vol. 2, Northern Ohio Geological Society, Cleveland.Google Scholar
  35. Sonnenfeld, P. 1984. Brines and Evaporites. Academic Press. New York. 613 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Suess, E. 1970. Interaction of organic compounds with CaCO3. I. Association phenomena and geochemical implications. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 34: 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Suess, E. and Fütterer, D. 1972. Aragonitic ooids: experimental precipitation from seawater in the presence of humic acid. Sedimentology 19: 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Van Rosmalen, G.M., Marchée, W.G.J. and Bennema, P. 1976. A comparison of gypsum crystals grown in silica gel and agar in the presence of additives. Journal of Crystal Growth 35: 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Javor

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations