Basic Mechanisms of Photosensitization

  • P. Thune

Summary

To the dermatologist photosensitization means cutaneous photosensitive responses to an added chemical and includes photoallergic or phototoxic reactions; several substances are capable of producing both types. Many of the compounds that cause photoallergy are halogenated, aromatic hydrocarbons which can generate free radicals as a result of homolysis of the photolabile carbon-halogen bond. Most of the photosensitizers function in the presence of oxygen and the intra-cellular reaction site has been established with certainty in several compounds. Definite proof has been provided that in mice contact photosensitivity is a highly specific delayed-type hypersensitive (DTH) reaction which is effected by T-cell subsets.

Key words

Photosensitization Phototoxicity Photoallergy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chignell CF, Motten AG, Buettner GR (1985) Photoinduced free radicals from chlorpromazine and related phenothiazines: relationship to phenothiazine-induced photosensitization. Environ Hlth Persp 64: 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Epling GA, Wells JL, Ung Chan Yoon (1988) Photochemical transformations in salicylanilide photoallergy. Photochem Photobiol 47: 167–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Girotti AW (1983) Mechanisms of photosensitization. Photochem Photobiol 38: 745–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guidici PA, Maguire HC (1985) Experimental photoallergy to systemic drugs. J Invest Dermatol 85: 207–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kochevar IE (1987) Mechanisms of drug photosensitization. Photochem Photobiol 45: 891–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li ASW, Chignell CF (1987) Spectroscopic studies of cutaneous photosensitizing agents. XI. Photolysis of chlorpromazine metabolites: a spin-trapping study. Photochem Photobiol 45: 695–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li ASW, Chignell CF (1987) Spectroscopic studies of cutaneous photosensitizing agents. IX. A spin-trapping study of the photolysis of amiodarone and desethylemiodarone. Photochem Photobiol 45: 191–197.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li ASW, Chignell CF (1987) Spectroscopic studies of cutaneous photosensitizing agents. XII. A spin-trapping study of the free radicals generated during the photolysis of photoallergens bithionol and fentichlor. Photochem Photobiol 46: 445–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ljunggren B, Bjellerup M (1986) Systemic drug photosensitivity. Photodermatol 3: 26–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moore DE, Chappnis PP (1988) A comparative study of the photochemistry of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, naproxen, benoxaprophen and indomethazin. Photochem Photobiol 47: 173–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morison WL, Kochevar IE (1983) Photoallergy. In: Parrish JA, Kripke M, Morison WL (eds) Photoimmunology. Plenum, New York, pp 227–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peltonen K, Zitting A, Koskinen H, Itkonen A (1986) Free radicals from photodecomposition of bisphenol-A. Photchem Photobiol 43: 481–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Poh-Fitzpatrick MB (1986) Molecular and cellular mechanisms of porphyrin photosensitization. Photodermatol 3: 148–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sandberg S, Romslo I (1981) Porphyrin-induced photodamage at the cellular and the sub-cellular level as related to the solubility of the porphyrin. Clin Chem Acta 109: 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Spikes JD (1983) Photosensitization in mammalian cells. In: Parrish JA, Kripke M, Morison WL (eds) Photoimmunology. Plenum, New York pp 23–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Takigawa M, Miyachi Y (1982) Mechanisms of contact photosensitivity in mice: T-cell regulation of contact photosensitivity to tetra-chlorosalicylanilide under the genetic restrictions of the major histocompatibility complex. J Invest Dermatol 78: 108–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Towers GHN, Hudson JB (1987) Potentially useful antimicrobial and antiviral phototoxins from plants. Photochem Photobiol 46: 61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Valenzeno DP (1987) Photomodification of biological membranes with emphasis on singlet oxygen mechanism. Photochem Photobiol 46: 147–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Thune
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUllevaal HospitalOslo 4Norway

Personalised recommendations