Review of Experience in Clinical Trials of Specific Active Tumor-Associated Antigen Immunotherapy of Lung Cancer
The preparation of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has been described in detail (Hollinshead 1978, 1980; Hollinshead et al. 1981, 1979, 1987, 1988, 1980; Stewart et al. 1976, 1986; Takita et al. 1985). Two categories of TAA are prepared for usage in immunotherapy (ITx) and clinical and laboratory evaluations: pure TAA, in which membranes are separated from carefully characterized tumor cells, the membranes are subjected to gentle, low frequency sonica-tion procedures, and the solubilized proteins are separated into active components, according to size, charge, affinity. After identification, characterization, and preclinical testing, selected components are used for therapy; and ultra-pure TAA, in which the above preparations are subjected to further purification, especially by isotachophoresis, and alternately by monoclonal antibody-affinity chromatography. These preparations are used in particular for characterization, initial clinical studies, for hybridomas, and epitope preparations. Both forms of TAA are biologically active and immunogenic. Some of the methods used throughout for identification and characterization are: 1. Stepwise, gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and SDS-PAGE, using well-defined control preparations of known MW determination; migration and densitometry profiles and other chemical studies are performed for usage in comparison with libraries of previously studied specimens. These standard studies are optionally followed by studies with 2D slab gel or blotting techniques.
KeywordsMigration Toxicity Adenocarcinoma Titration Electrophoresis
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