Genes of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Higher Plants—Structure, Expression and Strategies for Their Engineering

  • A. K. Tyagi
  • N. Y. Kelkar
  • S. Kapoor
  • S. C. Maheshwari
Conference paper

Summary

Approximately 50 proteins in the form of various multi-subunit supra-molecular complexes are associated with the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast which carry out various functions of photosynthesis. Gene(s) for these proteins are encoded either in the plastid chromosome or in the nucleus. With the characterisation of the genes for more than 35 polypeptides, it has become clear that the thylakoid membrane is the product of a complex interaction between the nuclear and chloroplast genetic systems. The organisation of chloroplast-encoded genes is complex, involving polycistronic transcription. Expression of both nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded genes is regulated at several steps and light has an important role to play during biogenesis of thylakoids. Nuclear-encoded proteins are produced as precursors on the cytosolic ribosomes with amino-terminus transit-peptides which help in intracellular and intra-organelle targeting of the proteins and get cleaved off during this process. Interesting strategies for manipulation of genes of thylakoid proteins are emerging to study structure/functional relationships in photosynthesis.

Keywords

Maize Chlorophyll Codon Glycine Cysteine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Herrmann, R. G., Westhoff, P., Alt, J., Tittgen, J. and Nelson, N. (1985). In: Molecular Form and Function of the Plant Genome (van Vloten-Doting, L., Groot, G. S. P. and Hall, T. C., eds.), pp. 233–256, Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Palmer, J. D. (1985) Ann. Rev. Genet. 19, 325–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thompson, W. F., Kaufman, L. S. and Watson, J. C. (1985) Bio Essays 3, 153–159Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson, J. M. (1986) Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 37, 93–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schmidt, G. W. and Mishkind, M. L. (1986) Ann. Rev. Biochem. 55, 879–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gray, J. C. (1987). In: Photosynthesis (Amesz, J., ed.), pp. 319–342, Elsevier, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoober, J. K. (1987). In: The Biochemistry of PlantsA Comprehensive Treatise (Stumpf, P. K. and Conn, E. E., eds.), pp. 1–74, Academic Press, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuhlemeier, C., Green, P. J. and Chua, N.-H. (1987) Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 38, 221–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zurawski, G. and Clegg, M. T. (1987) Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 38, 391–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Westhoff, P. and Herrmann, R. G. (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 171, 551–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shinozaki, K., Ohme, M., Tanaka, M., Wakasugi, T., Hayashida, N., Matsubayashi, T., Zaita, N., Chunwangse, J., Obokata, J., Yamaguchi-Shinozaky, K., Ohto, C., Torazawa, K., Meng, B. Y., Sugita, M., Deno, H., Kamogashira, T., Yamada, K., Kusuda, J., Takaiwa, F., Kato, A., Tohdoh, N., Shimada, H. and Sugiura, M. (1986) EMBO J. 5, 2043–2049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ohyama, K., Fukuzawa, H., Kohchi, T., Shirai, H., Sano, T., Sano, S., Umesono, K., Shiki, Y., Takeuchi, M., Chang, Z., Aota, S., Inokuchi, H. and Ozeki, H. (1986) Nature 322, 572–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tittgen, J., Hermans, J., Steppuhn, J., Jansen, T., Jansson, C, Andersson, B., Nechushtai, R.. Nelson, N. and Herrmann, R. G. (1986) Mol. Gen. Genet. 204, 258–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nanba, O. and Satoh, K. (1987) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84, 109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barber, J. (1987) Trends Biochem. Sci. 12, 321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bedbrook, J. R., Link, G., Coen, D. M., Bogorad, L. and Rich, A. (1978) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3060–3064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zurawski, G., Bohnert, H. J., Whitfeld, P. R. and Bottomley, W. (1982) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 79, 7699–7703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marder, J. B., Goloubinoff, P. and Edelman, M. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 3900–3908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hirschberg, J. and Mcintosh, L. (1983) Science 222, 1346–1349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goloubinoff, P., Edelman, M. and Hallick, R. B. (1984) Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 9489–9496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alt, J., Morris, J., Westhoff, P. and Herrmann, R. G. (1984) Curr. Genet. 8, 597–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Herrmann, R. G., Alt, J., Schiller, B., Widger, W. R. and Cramer, W. A. (1984) FEBS Lett. 176, 239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Widger, W. R., Cramer, W. A., Hermodson, M. and Herrmann, R. G. (1985) FEBS Lett. 191, 186–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carrillo, N., Seyer, P., Tyagi, A. and Herrmann, R. G. (1986) Curr. Genet. 10, 619–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hird, S. M., Willey, D. L., Dayer, T. A. and Gray, J. C. (1986) Mol. Gen. Genet. 203, 95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Morris, J. and Herrmann, R. G. (1984) Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 2837–2850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Steinmetz, A. A., Castroviejo, M., Sayre, R. T. and Bogorad, L. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 2485–2488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Westhoff, P., Farchaus, J. W. and Herrmann, R. G. (1986) Curr. Genet. 11, 165–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dunsmuir, P., Smith, S. M. and Bedbrook, J. (1983) J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2, 285–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cashmore, A. R. (1984) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 81, 2960–2964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pichersky, E., Bernatzky, R., Tanksley, S. D., Breidenback, R. B., Kausch, A. P. and Cashmore, A. R. (1985) Gene 40, 247–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lamppa, G. K., Morelli, G. and Chua, N.-H. (1985) Mol. Cell Biol. 5, 1370–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meyerowitz, E. M. and Pruitt, R. E. (1985) Science 229, 1214–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dunsmuir, P. (1985) Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 2503–2518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Polans, N. O., Weeden, N. F. and Thompson, W. F. (1985) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 82, 5083–5087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vallejos, C. E., Tanksley, S. D. and Bernatzky, R. (1986) Genetics 112, 93–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Karlin-Neumann, G. A., Kohorn, B. D., Thornber, J. P. and Tobin, E. M. (1985) J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 3, 45–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stayton, M. M., Black, M., Bedbrook, J. and Dunsmuir, P. (1986) Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 9781–9796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pichersky, E., Hoffman, N. E., Malik, V. S., Bernatzky, R., Tanksley, S. D., Szabo, L. and Cashmore, A. R. (1987) Plant Mol. Biol. 9, 109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Andersson, B. (1986). In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series (Staehelin, L. A. and Arntzen, C. J., eds.), Vol. 19, pp. 447–456, Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Westhoff, P., Jansson, C., Klein-Hitpass, L., Berzborn, R., Larsson, C. and Bartlett, S. G. (1985) Plant Mol. Biol. 4, 137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sheen, J. Y., Sayre, R. T. and Bogorad, L. (1987) Plant Mol. Biol. 9, 217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tyagi, A., Hermans, J., Steppuhn, J., Jansson C., Vater, F. and Herrmann, R. G. (1987) Mol. Gen. Genet. 207, 288–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jansen, T., Rother, C., Steppuhn, J., Reinke, H., Beyreuther, K., Jansson C, Andersson, B. and Herrmann, R. G. (1987) FEBS Lett. 216, 234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lautner, A., Klein, R., Ljungberg, U., Reiländer, H., Bartling, D., Andersson, B., Reinke, H, Beyreuther, K. and Herrmann, R. G. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. (in Press)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rother, C., Jansen, T., Tyagi, A., Tittgen, J. and Herrmann, R. G. (1986) Curr. Genet. 11, 171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Alt, J., Westhoff, P., Sears, B. B., Nelson, N., Hurt, E., Hauska, G. and Herrmann, R. G. (1983) EMBO J. 2, 979–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tyagi, A. K. and Herrmann, R. G. (1986) Curr. Genet. 10, 481–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Alt, J. and Herrmann, R. G. (1984) Curr. Genet. 8, 551–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Willey, D. L., Auffret, A. D. and Gray, J. C. (1984) Cell 36, 555–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tanaka, M., Obokata, J., Chunwongse, J., Shinozaki, K. and Sugiura, M. (1987) Mol. Gen. Genet. 209, 427–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Widger, W. R., Cramer, W. A., Herrmann, R. G. and Trebst, A. (1984) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 81, 674–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Steppuhn, J., Rother, C., Hermans, J., Jansen, T., Salnikow, J., Hauska, G. and Herrmann, R. G. (1987) Mol. Gen. Genet. 210, 171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hermans, J., Rother, C., Bichler, J., Steppuhn, J. and Herrmann, R. G. (1988) Plant Mol. Biol, (in Press)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fish, L. E., Kiick, U. and Bogorad, L. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1413–1421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kirsch, W., Seyer, P. and Herrmann, R. G. (1986) Curr. Genet. 10, 843–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hayashida, N., Matsubayashi, T., Shinozaki, K., Sugiura, M., Inoue, K. and Hiyama, T. (1987) Curr. Genet. 12, 247–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pichersky, E., Hoffmann, N. E., Bernatzky, R., Piechulla, B., Tanksley, S. D. and Cashmore, A. R. (1987) Plant Mol. Biol. 9, 205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Herrmann, R. G., Westhoff, P., Alt, J., Winter, P., Tittgen, J., Bisanz, C., Sears, B. B., Nelson, N., Hurt, E., Hauska, G., Viebrock, A. and Sebald, W. (1983). In: Structure and Function of Plant Genomes (Ciferri, O. and Dure III, L., eds.), pp. 143–153, Plenum Publishing Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Smeekens, S., de Groot, M., van Binsbergen, J. and Weisbeek, P. (1985) Nature 317, 456–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Smeekens, S., van Binsbergen, J. and Weisbeek, P. (1985) Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 3179–3195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jansen, T., Reiländer, H., Steppuhn, J. and Herrmann, R. G. (1988) Curr. Genet, (in Press)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hennig, J. and Herrmann, R. G. (1986) Mol. Gen. Genet. 203, 117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hudson, G. S., Mason, J. G., Holton, T. A., Koller, B., Cox, G. B., Whitfeld, P. R. and Bottomley, W. (1987) J. Mol. Biol. 196, 283–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bird, C. R., Koller, B., Auffret, A. D., Huttly, A. K., Howe, C. J., Dyer, T. A. and Gray, J. C. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 1381–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shinozaki, K., Deno, H., Wakasugi, T. and Sugiura, M. (1986) Curr. Genet. 10, 421–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zurawski, G., Bottomley, W. and Whitfeld, P. R. (1986) Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 3974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Westhoff, P., Nelson, N., Bunemann, H. and Herrmann, R. G. (1981) Curr. Genet. 4, 109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Westhoff, P., Alt, J., Nelson, N. and Herrmann, R. G. (1985) Mol. Gen. Genet. 144, 290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stubbe, W. (1959) Z. Vererbungsl. 90, 288–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Harpster, M. and Apel, K. (1985) Physiol. Plant. 64, 147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tobin, E. M. and Silverthorne, J. (1985) Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 36, 569–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hanley-Bowdoin, L. and Chua, N. -H. (1987) Trends Biochem. Sci. 12, 67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Link, G. (1984) EMBO J. 1697–1704Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Orozco Jr, E. M., Mullet, J. E. and Chua, N.-H. (1985) Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 1283–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gruissem, W., Greenberg, B. M., Zurawski, G. and Hallick, R. B. (1986) Methods in Enzymol. 118, 253–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Klein, R. R. and Mullet, J. E. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 4341–4348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Westhoff, P., Grüne, H., Schrubar, H., Oswald, A., Streubel, M., Ljungberg, U. and Herrmann, R. G. (1988). In: Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems: Structure and Function (Schees, H. and Schnerdes, S., eds.), Walks de Gruyter Verlag, Berlin (in Press)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Deng, X. W. and Gruissem, W. (1987) Cell 49, 379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79a.
    Apel, K. and Kloppstech, K. (1978) Eur. J. Biochem. 85, 581–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Fluhr, R., Kuhlemeier, C., Nagy, F. and Chua, N.-H. (1986) Science 232, 1106–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Lamppa, G. K., Nagy, F. and Chua, N.-H. (1985) Nature 316, 750–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Simpson, J., Timko, M. P., Cashmore, A. R., Schell, J., Van Montagu, M. and Herrerra-Estrella, L. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 2723–2729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Simpson, J., Schell, J., Van Montagu, M. and Herrera-Estrella, L. (1986) Nature 323, 551–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Nagy, F., Kay, S. A., Boutry, M., Hsu, M. Y. and Chua, N.-H. (1986) EMBO J. 5, 1119–1124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Nagy, F., Boutry, M., Hsu, M. Y., Wong, M. and Chua, N.-H. (1987) EMBO J. 6, 2537–2542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Green, P. J., Kay, S. A. and Chua, N.-H. (1987) EMBO J. 6, 2543–2549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Fraley, R. T., Rogers, S. G. and Horsch, R. B. (1986) CRC Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 4, 1–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Schell, J. S. (1987) Science 237, 1176–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Green, P. J., Pines, O. and Inouye, M. (1986) Ann. Rev. Biochem. 55, 569–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Rothstein, S. J., DiMaio, J., Strand, M. and Rice, D. (1987) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84, 8439–8443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Crossway, A., Hauptli, H., Houck, C. M., Irvine, J. M., Oakes, J. V. and Perani, L. A. (1986) BioTechniques 4, 320–334Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Krüger-Lebus, S. and Potrykus, I. (1987) Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 5, 289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Giles, K. L., Vaughan, V., Ranch, J. P. and Emery, J. (1980). In Vitro 16, 581–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Binding, H., Krumbiegel-Schroeren, G. and Nehls, R. (1986). In: Differentiation of Protoplasts and of Transformed Plant Cells (Reinert, J. and Binding, H., eds.), pp. 37–66, Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    de Hass, J. M., Boot, K. J. M., Haring, M. A., Kool, A. J. and Nijkamp, H. J. J. (1986) Mol. Gen. Genet. 202, 48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Wu, M., Lou, J. K., Chang, D. Y., Chang, C. H. and Nie, Z. Q. (1986) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 83, 6761–6765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Gold, B., Carillo, N., Tewari, K. K. and Bogorad, L. (1987) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84, 194–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Cashmore, A. R., Szabo, L., Timko, M., Kausch, A., Van den Broeck, G., Schreier, P., Bohnert, H., Herrera-Estrella, L., Van Montagu, M. and Schell, J. (1985) Biotechnology 3, 803–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Narosa Publishing House 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Tyagi
    • 1
    • 3
  • N. Y. Kelkar
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Kapoor
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. C. Maheshwari
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Unit for Plant Cell and Molecular BiologyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Plant Molecular BiologyUniversity of Delhi South CampusNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations