The Study of the Forces Between Atoms of Single Crystal Surfaces from Experimental Phonon Dispersion Curves

  • J. P. Toennies
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 14)

Abstract

The observation of relaxation and reconstruction suggests that the forces between individual atoms at the surface of single crystals are different from those in the bulk. With the recent development of new techniques for high resolution inelastic helium- and electron-impact scattering it is now possible to measure phonon dispersion curves on insulators, semiconductors and metals. In all three types of materials a number of unexpected phenomena are observed many of which have been analyzed in terms of interatomic force constants describing the lateral interactions between atoms in the first layer. For example on the fcc(111) metal surfaces only the nearly free electron metal Al shows a behavior consistent with bulk force constants, whereas all the noble metals and the transition metals Pd and Pt show a strong anomaly in their surface lateral force constants even though they do not reconstruct. In W(001), a metal which is known to reconstruct below room temperature, the dispersion curves show a normal behavior at 1100 K, an anomalous behavior at 450 K and a folded dispersion curve characteristic of a reconstructed surface at 220 K. These and other examples of unexpected behavior in the insulator LiF and semiconductors such as Si, GaAs, GaSe and TaSe2 discussed in terms of recent theoretical models of force constant modifications at the surface.

Keywords

Helium Hexagonal Soliton GaAs Fluorine 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Toennies
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für StrömungsforschungGöttingenFed.Rep.of Germany

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