Chromium Treatment of Wastewaters by Chemical Methods
Chromium is a relatively common element, but the chromium ions in water bodies mainly originate from industrial wastewater discharges. Chromium has several oxidation states among which the mostly encountered ones are Cr+3 and Cr+6 . In industrial wastes, chromium is present primarily in the hexavalent form as chromate (Cr0 4 = ) and dichromate (Cr20 7 = ).
KeywordsChemical Oxygen Demand Wastewater Sample Hexavalent Chromium Chromium Concentration Trivalent Chromium
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1981) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Fifteenth Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington.Google Scholar
- Culotta JM, Swanton WF (1977) Case Histories of Plating Waste Recovery Systems. 56 th Annual Conference of the American Electroplaters Society. Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
- Eckenfelder WW (1980) Principles of Water Quality Management. CBI Publishing Company, Boston.Google Scholar
- Faust SD, Aly DM (1983) Chemistry of Water Treatment. Butterworth Publishers, Boston, London.Google Scholar
- Gloyna FE, Eckenfelder WW (1970) Water Quality Improvement by Physical and Chemical Processes, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
- Hem, JD (1971) Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Chracteristics of Natural Water. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1473, United States Government Printing Office, Washington.Google Scholar
- Jakobsen K, Laska R (1977) Advanced Treatment Methods for Electroplating Wastes, Poll. Eng.: pp. 42–46.Google Scholar
- Müezzinoğlu A, Şengül F (1989) Chromium, Cadmium and Mercury Pollution in Izmir Bay. Plants and Pollutants in Developed and Developing Countries, Ed. by: Dr.Münir Ahmet Öztürk, Ege University, pp. 37–49, Izmir.Google Scholar
- McKee JE, Wolf HW (1978) Water Quality Criteria. California State Water Resources Control Board, Publication No: 3-a, California.Google Scholar
- Official Gazette (1988) Water Pollution Control Regulation, Gazette No. 19919, pp. 41–42, Ankara.Google Scholar
- Patterson JW (1985) Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technology Second Edition, Butterworth Publishers, Boston London Durban.Google Scholar
- Şengül F, Türkman A, Filibeli A (1986) A Case Study on Chromium Wastes Treatment. Preprints of the Third Symposium on Environmental Management for Developing Countries, Istanbul.Google Scholar