The Effect of Aramid and Metaphosphate Fibers on Macrophage Viability and Function

  • Candace S. Wheeler
  • Charles D. Garner
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 30)


This study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a number of asbestos substitute fibers on primary rat alveolar macrophages (AMs) and a mouse macrophage-Iike cell line (J774A.1) in vitro. Following 24- and 48-hour incubations, the cells were observed under phase contrast microscopy for changes in cell morphology and cell viability was assessed using trypan blue exclusion. A viability index (VI) was calculated to reflect changes in both cell number and cell viability. All of the materials studied produced a concentration-dependent reduction in VI. In addition, both Kevlar and calcium sodium metaphosphate (CSMP) fibers produced a concentration- dependent release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from primary AMs. Finally, no chemotaxis was observed in response to either Kevlar or CSMP fiber alone, but both fibers stimulated measurable concentration-dependent chemotaxis when incubated with AMs. These results suggest that all of the materials were cytotoxic to AMs in vitro in the form and at the concentrations (25, 250 µg/mL) used in this study and can affect AM function. What effect these materials have on the human health remains to be determined.


Alveolar Macrophage Trypan Blue Exclusion Viability Index Calcium Sodium General Motor Research Laboratory 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Candace S. Wheeler
    • 1
  • Charles D. Garner
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomedical Science DepartmentGeneral Motors Research LaboratoriesWarrenUSA

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