Uptake of Gaba and L-Glutamate Into Synaptic Vesicles

  • Else M. Fykse
  • Hege Christensen
  • Frode Fonnum
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 29)


Synaptic vesicles are supposed to play a central role in neurotransmission as the transmitter storing and releasing organelles of the nerve terminal. In the central nervous system y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-glutamate are the most important inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters, respectively (Krnjevic, 1970). There are, however, no evidence for any enrichment of GABA and L-glutamate in the synaptosomes or the synaptic vesicles compared to other subcellular fractions from brain tissue (De Belleroche and Bradford, 1973; Lahdesmaki et. al., 1977; Wood and Kurylo, 1984). The lack of evidence for an enrichment of GABA and L-glutamate has been attributed to the possible leakage of the amino acids during the isolation procedure. It has been shown that GABA and L-glutamate are taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles by an active transport mechanism (Philippu and Matthaei, 1975; Disbrow et al., 1982; Naito and Ueda, 1983; Fykse and Fonnum, 1988). The vesicular uptake is temperature dependent, and dependent on the presence of ATP and Mg2+ the incubation medium. The vesicular uptake is not dependent on Na+, and it is not inhibited by blockers of the glial and synaptosomal uptake.


Synaptic Vesicle Chromaffin Granule Gaba Uptake Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide Vesicular Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson DC, King SC, and Parsons SM (1982) Proton gradient linkage to active uptake of 3-H acetylcholine by Torpedo electric organ synaptic vesicles. Biochemistry 21: 3037–3043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chou J and Chou TC (1985) Dose effect analysis with computers. Elsevier-Biosoft, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. De Belleroche JS and Bradford HF (197 3) Amino acids in synaptic vesicles from mammalian cerebral cortex: a reappraisal. J. Neurochem 21: 441–451Google Scholar
  4. Disbrow JK, Gershten MJ, and Ruth JA (1982) Uptake of L[3H]glutamic acid by crude and purified synaptic vesicles from rat brain. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com 108: 1221–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fonnum F, Lund-Karlsen R, Malthe-Sorensen D, Sterri S, and Walaas I. High affinity transport systems and their role in transmitter action. Cotman CW, Poste G, and Nicholson GL (eds) (1980) The cell surface and neuronal function, Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical press, Amsterdam, pp. 171–183.Google Scholar
  6. Fykse EM and Fonnum F (1988) Uptake of y-aminobutyric acid by a synaptic vesicle fraction isolated from rat brain. J. Neurochem 50: 1237 - 1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fykse EM, Christensen H, and Fonnum F (1989) Comparison of the y-aminobutyric acid and L-glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles isolated from rat brain. J. Neurochem (in press)Google Scholar
  8. Kanner BI and Schuldiner S (1987) Mechanism of transport and storage of neurotransmitters. CRC Critical reviews in biochemistry 22: 1–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Koenigsberger R and Parsons SM (1980) Bicarbonate and magnesium ion-ATP dependent stimulation of acetylcholine uptake by Torpedo electric organ synaptic vesicles. Biochem Biophys. Res. Com 94: 305–312Google Scholar
  10. Krnjevic K (1970) Glutamate and y-aminobutyric acid in the brain. Nature 228: 119–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lahdesmaki P, Karpinnen A, Saarni H, and Winter R (1977) Amino acids in the synaptic vesicle fraction from calf brain: content and metabolism. Brain Res 138: 295–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Moriyama Y and Nelson N (1987) The purified ATPase from cromaffine granule membranes is an anion dependent proton pump. J. Biol. Chem 19: 9175–9180Google Scholar
  13. Naito S and Ueda T (1983) Adenosine triphosphate dependent uptake of glutamate into protein I-associated synaptic vesicles. J. Biol. Chem 258: 696–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Naito S and Ueda T (1985) Characterization of glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles. J. Neurochem 44: 99–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nicklas WJ, Puszkin S, and Berl S (1973) Effect of vinblastine and colchicine on uptake and release of putative transmitters by synaptosomes and on brain actomycin-like protein. J. Neurochem 20: 109–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Parsons SM and Koeningsberger R (1980) Specific stimulated uptake of acetylcholine by Torpedo electric organ synaptic vesicles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 77: 6234–6238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Philippu A and Matthaei H (1975) Uptake of serotonin, gamma-amino-butyric acid and histamine into synaptic vesicles of pig caudate nucleus. Naunyn-Schiedeberg1s Arch. Pharmacol 287: 191–204Google Scholar
  18. Rudnick G (1986) ATP-driven H+-pumping into intracellular organelles. Ann. Rev. Physiol 48: 403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Seidler F, Kirksey DF, Lau C, Whitmore WL, and Slotkin TS (1977) Uptake of (−)[3H]norephineprine by storage vesicles prepared from whole rat brain: properties of the uptake system and its inhibition by drugs. Life Sci 21: 1075–1086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Stadler H and Tsukita S (1984) Synaptic vesicles contain an ATP dependent proton pump and show knob-like protrusions on their surface. EMBO J 3: 3333–3337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Toll L, Gundersen CB, and Howard BD (1977) Energy utilization in the uptake of catecholamines by synaptic vesicles and adrenal chromaffin granules. Brain Res 136: 59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Toll L and Howard BD (1978) Role of Mg2+-ATPase and a pH gradient in the storage of catecholamines in synaptic vesicles. Biochemistry 17: 2517–2523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Whittaker WP, Michaelson JA, and Kirkland RJA (1964) The separation of synaptic vesicles from nerve endings particles (synaptosomes). Biochemical J 90: 293–303Google Scholar
  24. Wood JD and Kurylo E (1984) Amino acid content of nerve endings (synaptomes) in different regions of brain: effect of gabaculline and isonicotinic acid hydrazide. J. Neurochem 42: 420–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Else M. Fykse
    • 1
  • Hege Christensen
    • 1
  • Frode Fonnum
    • 1
  1. 1.Division for Environmental ToxicologyNorwegian Defence Research EstablishmentKjellerNorway

Personalised recommendations