Retroviral Receptors and Interference on Human Cells
Human cells express receptors for and are susceptible to infection by a wide variety of different animal retroviruses in vitro. Although human cells will permit binding, entry, penetration and replication of these retroviruses, only the human retroviruses exert any pathogenic effect in vivo. This is probably because human complement can, in the absence of antibody, mediate lysis of the other animal viruses (Cooper et al., 1976; Hoshino et al., 1984). With the exception of the receptor used by the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses, the CD4 antigen (Dalgleish et al., 1984; Klatzmann et al., 1984), the identity of retroviral receptors on human cells remains to be elucidated. Viruses utilise cell surface molecules that have not evolved specifically for virus attachment but perform other roles, for example in regulating the immune response. The aim of our studies was to enumerate the variety of distinct retroviral receptors expressed on human cells and to group viruses according to their receptor specificity. Two assay systems were employed which exploited the ability of these viruses to induce the formation of multinucleate syncytia and to interact with the unrelated rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to form pseudotype virions. Somatic cell hybrids were used to assign receptor genes to human chromosomes which may aid the identification and characterisation of these moieties.
KeywordsInfluenza Sarcoma Stein Osteosarcoma Amantadine
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