Retroviral Receptors and Interference on Human Cells
Human cells express receptors for and are susceptible to infection by a wide variety of different animal retroviruses in vitro. Although human cells will permit binding, entry, penetration and replication of these retroviruses, only the human retroviruses exert any pathogenic effect in vivo. This is probably because human complement can, in the absence of antibody, mediate lysis of the other animal viruses (Cooper et al., 1976; Hoshino et al., 1984). With the exception of the receptor used by the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses, the CD4 antigen (Dalgleish et al., 1984; Klatzmann et al., 1984), the identity of retroviral receptors on human cells remains to be elucidated. Viruses utilise cell surface molecules that have not evolved specifically for virus attachment but perform other roles, for example in regulating the immune response. The aim of our studies was to enumerate the variety of distinct retroviral receptors expressed on human cells and to group viruses according to their receptor specificity. Two assay systems were employed which exploited the ability of these viruses to induce the formation of multinucleate syncytia and to interact with the unrelated rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to form pseudotype virions. Somatic cell hybrids were used to assign receptor genes to human chromosomes which may aid the identification and characterisation of these moieties.
KeywordsSimian Immunodeficiency Virus Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Bovine Leukaemia Virus Somatic Cell Hybrid
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ahmed M, Korol W, Larson DL, Harewood KR, Mayyasi SA (1975) Interactions between endogenous baboon type-C virus and oncogenic viruses. 1. Syncytium induction and development of infectivity assay. Int J Cancer 16: 747–755Google Scholar
- Sommerfelt MA, Williams BP, Clapham PR, Solomon E, Goodfellow PN, Weiss RA (1989) Human T-cell leukaemia viruses use a receptor determined by chromosome 17. Science (in press)Google Scholar
- Stein BS, Gowda SD, Lifson JD, Penhallow RC, Bensch KG, Engleman EG (1987) pH-Independent HIV entry into CD4-positive T cells via virus envelope fusion to the plasma membrane. Cell 49: 659–668Google Scholar
- Weiss RA, Clapham P, Nagy K, Hoshino H (1985) Envelope properties of human T cell leukaemia viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 115:235–245Google Scholar