Efferent Projections to the Goldfish Retina

  • Alexander K. Ball
  • William K. Stell
  • Diane A. Tutton
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 31)


The centrifugal innervation of the retina has been extensively described in birds (Cowan, 1970), but only recently has the existence of efferents been demonstrated in a variety of other species, including several species of fish (Witkovsky, 1971; Ebbesson and Meyer, 1981; Munz and Claas, 1981; Munz et al, 1982; Gerwerzhagen et al, 1982; Crapon de Caprona and Fritzsch, 1983; Meyer et al, 1983; Springer, 1983). Retrograde tracing methods have shown that there may be as many as five central sources of fish retinal efferents (Ebbesson and Meyer, 1981). Reports on the number and location of these efferent sources are inconsistent, but there is agreement that one source of retinal efferents is the terminal nerve (TN) (Springer, 1983).


Formalin Dopamine Glycine Retina Stratification 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander K. Ball
    • 1
  • William K. Stell
    • 2
  • Diane A. Tutton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of AnatomyThe University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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