Bipolar Cells, Amacrine Cells and Ganglion Cells in the Retina of the Californian Slender Salamander, Batrachoseps Attenuatus (Amphibia, Urodela, Plethodontidae)

  • Rüdiger Linke
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 31)


The miniaturized californian slender salamander Batrachoseps attenuatus has excellent visual abilities despite a visual system that is largely reduced both centrally and peripherally with regard to the numbers of neurons (Linke et al., 1986; Roth et al., 1988). In contrast to the extended knowledge about physiologigcal properties of single retinal neurons, limited knowledge exists about the morphology of retinal neurons in sala-manders. A morphological characterization of the retinal neurons that contribute to the inner plexiform layer (ipl), i.e. bipolar cells (bc), amacrine cells (ac) and ganglion cells (rgc) will enhance our knowledge of the morphological variations of cell types in vertebrate retinas.


Ganglion Cell Bipolar Cell Amacrine Cell Dendritic Arborization Retinal Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams JC (1977) Technical considerations on the use of horseradish peroxidase as a neuronal marker. Neuroscience 2: 141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arkin MS, Miller RF (1988) Mudpuppy retinal ganglion cell morphology revealed by an HRP impregnation technique which provides golgi-like staining. J Comp Neurol 270: 185–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Collonier, M (1964) The tangential organization of the visual cortex. J Anat 98: 327–344.Google Scholar
  4. Dowling JE (1968) Synaptic organization of the frog retina: An electron microscopic analysis comparing the retinas of frogs and primates. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 170: 205–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dowling JE, Werblin FS (1969) Organization of the retina of the mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus. I. Synaptic structure. J Neurophysiol 32: 315–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Frank BD, Hollyfield JG (1987) Retinal ganglion cell morphology in the frog Rana pipiens. J Comp Neurol 266: 413–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hare WA, Lowe JS, Owen G (1986) Morphology of physiologically identified bipolar cells in the retina of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tiarinum. J Comp Neurol 252: 130–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Linke R, Roth G, Rottluff B (1986) Comparative studies on the eye morphology of lungless salamanders, Family Plethodontidae, and the effect of miniaturization. J Morphol 189: 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ramon y Cajal, S (1933) The structure of the retina. Transl. by SA Thorpe, M Glickstein ( 1972 ), Springfield, III., Thomas.Google Scholar
  10. Roth G, Rottluff B, Linke R (1988) Miniaturization, genome size and the origin of functional constraints in the visual system of salamanders. Naturwiss. 75: in press.Google Scholar
  11. Vallerga S, Usai C (1986) Relation between light responses and dendritic branching in the salamander ganglion cells. Exp Biol 45: 81–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Valverde F (1970) The Golgi method. A tool for comparative structural analyses. In: WJH Nauta, SOE Ebbesson (eds) Contemporary Research Methods in Neuroanatomy. Berlin Heidelberg New York, Springer, pp 12–28.Google Scholar
  13. Wong-Riley MTT (1974) Synaptic organization of the inner plexiform layer in the retina of the larval tiger salamander. J Neurocytol 3: 1–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wunk DF, Werblin FS (1979) Synaptic inputs to the ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina. J Gen Physiol 79: 265–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yang C-Y, Yazulla S (1986) Neuropeptide-like immunoreactive cells in the retina of the larval tiger salamander: Attention to the symmetry of dendritic projections. J Comp Neurol 248: 105–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rüdiger Linke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of BremenFed. Rep. Germany

Personalised recommendations