Desegregation: Bussing of Signals Through the Retinal Network

  • Malcolm M. Slaughter
  • Sun-Ho Bai
  • Zhuo Hua Pan
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 31)

Abstract

One of the information processing principles that has been repeatedly discovered in the nervous system is the segregation of signals into separate but parallel pathways. In the visual system, for example, separationist groups such as ocular dominance and orientation columns have been uncovered in the visual cortex (8). This reactionary processing is also prominent in the retina where there is an apparent separation of rod-cone, ON-OFF, and transient-sustained signals (7,9,11, 23). These various modalities decompose images from the outside world into informational components that can be processed by the nervous system. This model of sensory processing proposes that images from the outside world are handled by a multiplicity of parallel pathways, each relaying information about a particular characteristic of the external image, such as its color, orientation, or direction of motion. This theory has found strong support in the discovery of neurons that are preferentially stimulated by one of these trigger features (2,12). Although this appears to be an important mechanism in sensory systems, recent studies in amphibian retina suggest that the segregation of signals is not so absolute, and that in fact there may be a mixing of signals which at face value seems to contradict the principles of decomposition and segregation that enables animals to interpretation the visual world.

Keywords

Retina Piperidine Baclofen 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Attwe11 D, Borges S, Wu SM and Wilson M (1987) Signal clipping by the rod output synapse. Nature 328: 522–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Barlow HB and Levick WR (1965) The mechanism of directionally selective units in rabbit’s retina. J.Physiol. (Lond.) 178: 477–504.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Belgum JH, Dvorak DR and McReynolds JS (1982) Light-evoked sustained inhibition in mudpuppy retinal ganglion cells. Vision Res. 22: 257–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Bowery NG, Hill DR, Hudson AL, Doble A, Middlemiss DN, Shaw J and Turnbull MJ (1980) (-) Baclofen decreases neurotransmitter release in the mammalian CNS by an action at a novel GABA receptor. Nature 283: 92–94.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Famiglietti EV and Kolb H (1975) A bistratified amacrine cell and synaptic circuitry in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Brain Res. 84: 293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Frumkes TE and Eysteinnson T (1987) Suppressive rod-coneGoogle Scholar
  7. interaction in distal vertebrate retina: Intracellular records from Xenopus and Necturus. J. Neurophysiol. 57: 1361–1382.Google Scholar
  8. [7]
    Hartline HK (1938) The response of single optic nerve fibers of the vertebrate eye to illumination of the retina. Amer. J. Physiol. 121: 400–415.Google Scholar
  9. [8]
    Hubel DH and Wiesel TN (1977) Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex. Proc. R. Soc Lond B 198: 1–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [9]
    Kaneko A (1970) Physiological and morphologicalGoogle Scholar
  11. identification of horizontal bipolar, and amacrine cells in goldfish retina. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207: 623–633.Google Scholar
  12. [10]
    Kolb H (1977) The organization of the outer plexiform layer in the retina of the cat:Electron microscopic observa-tions. J. Neurocytol. 6: 131–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [11]
    Kuffler SW (1953) Discharge patterns and functional organization of mammalian retina. J. Neurophysiol. 16: 37–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. [12]
    Lettvin JY, Maturana HR, McCulloch WS and Pitts WH (1959) What the frog’s eye tells the frog’s brain. Proc. Inst. Rad. Eng. 47: 1940–1951.Google Scholar
  15. [13]
    Mariani AP and Lasansky A (1.984) Chemical synapses between turtle photoreceptors. Brain Res. 310: 351–354.Google Scholar
  16. [14]
    Nelson R (1977) Cat cones have rod input: A comparison of response properties of cones and horizontal cell bodies in the retina of the cat. J Comp. Neurol. 172: 109–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [15]
    Normann RA, Perlman I, Kolb H, Jones J and Daly SJ (1984) Direct excitatory interactions between cones of different spectral types in the turtle retina. Science 224: 625–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [16]
    Pan ZH and Slaughter MM (1988) A cellular mechanism of selective attention. Science (submitted).Google Scholar
  19. [17]
    Sakai HM and Naka K-I (1987) Signal transmission in the catfish retina. IV. Transmission to ganglion cells. J. Neurophysiol. 58: 1307–1328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. [18]
    Sakai HM and Naka K-I (1987) Signal transmission in the catfish retina. V. Sensitivity and circuit. J. Neurophysiol. 58: 1329–1350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. [19]
    Slaughter MM and Bai S-H (1988) Diffential effects of baclofen on sustained and transient responses of retinal neurons. J Neurophysiol. (in press).Google Scholar
  22. [20]
    Slaughter MM and Miller RF (1981) 2-Amino-4-phosphono- butyric acid: A new pharmacological tool for retina research. Science 211: 182–185.Google Scholar
  23. [21]
    Slaughter MM and Miller RF (1983) Bipolar cells in the mudpuppy retina use an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter. Nature 303: 537–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [22]
    Slaughter MM and Miller RF (1983) An excitatory amino acid antagonist blocks cone input to sign-conserving second- order retinal neurons. Science 219: 1230–1232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [23]
    Werblin FS and Dowling JE (1969) Organization of the retina of the mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus. II. Intracellular recording. J. Neurophysiol. 32: 339–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malcolm M. Slaughter
    • 1
  • Sun-Ho Bai
    • 1
  • Zhuo Hua Pan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biophysical Sciences School of MedicineState University of New YorkBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations