Metals — Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence for Carcinogenicity

  • R. R. Lauwerys
Part of the Archives of Toxicology book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 13)

Abstract

This paper mainly summarizes the epidemilogical evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of some metals. It may therefore be useful to recall the ideal requirements for establishing carcinogenicity from epidemiological evidence. Briefly, the positive association between exposure and cancer should not be explicable by bias in recording or detection, confounding or chance; it should vary appropriately with intensity and duration of exposure and time after exposure begins and ends and it should be observed repeatedly in different circumstances (Doll 1985).

Keywords

Nickel Dust Welding Cobalt Cadmium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Axelson O, Dahlgren E, Janson CD, Rehnlund SA (1978) Arsenic exposure and mortality: a case-referent study from a Swedish copper smelter. Br J Ind Med 35: 8–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cooper WC, Wang O, Kheifets L (1985) Mortality among employees of lead battery plants and lead producting plants, 1947–1980. Scand J Work Environ Health 11: 331–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Doll R (1985) Relevance of epidemiology to policies for the prevention of cancer. Human Toxicology 4: 81–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eiinder CG (1984) Health hazards from exposure to cobalt, with special reference to carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Toxicol Environ Chem 7: 251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eiinder CG, Kjellström T, Hogstedt C, Andersson K, Spang G (1985) Cancer mortality of cadmium workers. Br J Ind Med 42: 651–655Google Scholar
  6. Gerhardsson L, Lundrom NG, Nordberg G, Wall S (1986) Mortality and lead exposure: a retrospective cohort study of Swedish smelter workers. Br J Ind Med 43: 707–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldberg M, Goldberg P, Leclerc A, Chastang JF, Fuhrer R, Brodeur JM, Segnan N, Floch JJ, Michel G (1987) Epidemiology of respiratory cancers related to nickel mining and refining in New Caledonia (1978–1984). Int J Cancer 40: 300–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grandjean Ph, Andersen O, Nielsen G (1988) Carcinogenicity of occupational nickel exposures: an evaluation of the epidemiological evidence. Am J Ind Med 13: 193–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Groth DH, Stettier LE, Burg JR (1986) Carcinogenic effects of antimony trioxide and antimony ore concentrated in rats. J Toxicol Environ Health 18: 607–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. HM Chief Inspector of Factories-Department of Employment. UK Annual Report 1974, HMSO, London 1975Google Scholar
  11. Hogstedt C, Alexandersson R (1987) Mortality among hard-metal workers in Sweden. Scand J Work Environ Health 13: 177–178Google Scholar
  12. Kazantzis G (1981) Role of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium in carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 40: 143–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kusaka Y, Kuwabara O, Kitamura H (1984) A case of diffuse lung disease associated with lung cancer in a hard metal worker. Industrial Health, 22: 804–808Google Scholar
  14. Leonard A, Lauwerys R (1980 a) Carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and mutagenicity of arsenic. Mutat Res 75: 49–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leonard A, Lauwerys R (1980 b) Carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity of chromium. Mutat Res 76: 227–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mancuso TF (1980) Mortality study of beryllium industry workers, occupational lung cancer. Environ Res 21: 48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mao P, Molnar JJ (1967) The fine structure and histochemistry of lead-induced renal tumors in rats. Am J Pathol 50: 571–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mur JM, Moulin JJ, Charruyer-Seinerra MP, Lafitte J (1987a) A cohort mortality study among cobalt and sodium workers in an electrochemical plant. Am J Ind Med 11: 75–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mur JM, Meyer-Bisch C, Pham QT, Massin N, Moulin JJ, Cavalier C, Sadoul P (1987b) Risk of lung cancer among iron ore miners: a proportional mortality study of 1075 deceased miners in Lorraine, France. J Occup Med 29: 762–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Norseth T (1981) The carcinogenicity of chromium. Environ Health Perspect 40: 121–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oldiges H, Glaser U, Hochrainer D (1987) Long-term inhalation study with four different cadmium compounds in rats p. 337–339 Heavy metals in the Environment vol. 1 (Ed. Lindberg S.E., Hutchinson T.) CEP consultants Ltd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  22. Ott MG, Holder BB, Gordon HL (1974) Respiratory cancer and occupational exposure to arsenicals. Arch Environ Health 29: 250–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pershagen G (1981) The carcinogenicity of arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 40: 93–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pershagen G, Wall S, Taube A, Linnman L (1981) On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer. Scand J Work Environ Health 7: 302–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pershagen G, Nordberg G, Björklund NE (1984) Carcinomas of the respiratory tract in hamsers given arsenic trioxide and/or benzo(a) pyrene by the pulmonary route. Environ Res 34: 227–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Skilleter DN (1987) Beryllium p 61–86 in Fishbein et al (eds) Genotoxic and carcinogenic metals: environmental and occupationel occurrence and exposure. Princeton Scientific Publishing CO, Princeton, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Steinhoff D (1987) Institut für Toxikologie. Bayer AG, Wuppertal, FRG. Personal LetterGoogle Scholar
  28. Stokinger HE (1981) The metals. Antimony p 1505 In: Clayton DG, Clayton FE (eds). Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 3rd ed, Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Sunderman FW Jr (1977) Metal carcinogenesis p 257–297. Advances in Modern Toxicology vol. 2 (Ed. Goyer RA, Mehlman MA) Hemisphere, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  30. Sunderman FW Jr (1987) Physicochemical and biological attributes of nickel compounds in relationships to carcinogenic activities p 355–365 in Brown and Kodama (eds) Toxicology of Metals : Clinical and Experimental Research, John Willey & Sons, NYGoogle Scholar
  31. Wagoner JR, Infante PF, Bayliss DL (1980) Beryllium: an etiologic agent in the induction of lung cancer, nonneoplastic respiratory disease and heart disease among industrially exposed workers. Environ Res 21: 15–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wehner AP, Busch RH, Olson RJ, Craig DK (1977) Chronic inhalation of cobalt oxide and cigarette smoke by hamsters. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 38: 338–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yamamoto A, Hisanaga A, Ishinishi N (1987) Tumorigenicity of inorganic arsenic compounds following intratracheal installations to the lungs of hamsters. Int J Cancer 40: 220–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yamane Y, Sakai K (1973) Suppressive effect of concurrent administration of metal salts on carcinogenicity by dimethylaminoazobenzene and the effect of these metals on aminoazo dye metabolism during carcinogenesis. Gann 64: 563–567PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. R. Lauwerys
    • 1
  1. 1.Unité de Toxicologie Industrielle et Médecine du Travail, Faculté de MédecineUniversité Catholique de LouvainBruxellesBelgique

Personalised recommendations