The Molecular Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance
Endemic antibiotic resistance is a problem worldwide. Six task forces have recently been organized to address this global problem in a quantitative way. Condensed reports from these task forces were recently published in the Reviews of Infectious Diseases (Levy et al. 1987). It is clear that large amounts of a variety of antibiotics, but especially of tetracyclines, broad spectrum penicillins and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, are being used throughout the world (Col and O’Connor 1987). In many countries, this usage is uncontrolled, and widespread underdosing from use of over-the-counter combinations obtained without prescription is the rule.
KeywordsBacillus Resis Glycoside Ampicillin Tetracycline
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bidwell JL, Reeves RS, Bullock DW (1981) Diversity of R plasmids in epidemic Serratia marcescens from the south west of England. In: Grassi GG, Sabath LD (eds) New trends in antibiotics: research and therapy. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 268–270Google Scholar
- Farmer JJ, Weinstein RA, Zierdt CH, Brokopp CD (1982) Hospital outbreaks caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: importance of serogroup p11. J Clin Microbiol 16: 226–270Google Scholar
- Jacoby GA (1984) Resistance plasmids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In: Bryan LE (ed) Antimicrobial drug resistance. Academic, Orlando, pp 497–514Google Scholar
- John JF, McNeill WF (1980) Plasmid diversity in multi-resistant Serratia marscens isolates from hospitals. In: Nelson JD, Grassi C (eds) Current chemotherapy and infectious disease. Proceeding of the 11th International Congress of Chemotherapy and the 19th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol 1. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 28–30Google Scholar
- Levy SB (1986) Ecology of antibiotic resistance determinants. Banbury report 24: antibiotic resistance genes: ecology, transfer and expression. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, pp 17–30Google Scholar
- McKee KT, Cotton RB, Stratton CW, Lavely GB, Wright PF, Shenai JP, Evans ME, Melly MA, Farmer JJ, Karzon DT, Schaffner W (1982) Nursery epidemic due to multiply resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: epidemiologic setting and impact on perinatal health care delivery. Infect Control 3: 150–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura M, Sato S, Ohya T, Suzuki S, Ikeda S (1986) Plasmid profile analysis in epidemiological studies of animal Salmonella typhimurium infection in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 23: 3605Google Scholar
- Shlaes DM, Currie-McCumber CA, Eanes M et al. (1986a) Gentamicin-resistance plasmids in an intensive care unit. Infect Control 7: 355–361Google Scholar
- Shlaes DM, Lehman MH, Currie-McCumber CA et al. (1986b) Prevalence of colonization with antibiotic resistant gram negative bacilli in a nursing home care unit. The importance of cross-colonization as documented by plasmid analysis. Infect Control 7: 538–545Google Scholar
- Shooter RA, Cooke EM, Gaya H et al. (1969) Food and medicaments as possible sources of hospital strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lancet 1: 227–229Google Scholar
- Zervos MJ, Mikesell TS, Schaberg DR (1986b) Heterogeneity of plasmids determining high level resistance to gentamicin in clinical isolates of Streptococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 30: 78–81Google Scholar