The amount of literature on vascular surgery is increasing dramatically, but so far no textbook has been published that deals exclusively with iatrogenic vascular injuries. Although some review articles have appeared, the problems concerning iatrogenic vascular trauma have not received appropriate attention in current textbooks on the vascular system. We therefore think it worthwhile to summarize present knowledge on this subject. Other important reasons for dealing with iatrogenic vascular trauma are their increasing frequency and the necessity of an optimal plan of action, particularly since the injury has been inflicted by us. Moreover, iatrogenic vascular injuries may occur at any time and without warning during various types of interventions and almost always require urgent handling. This means that any surgeon can be confronted by this problem.