Technical Properties of Residual Tree Components

  • Pentti Hakkila
Part of the Springer Series in Wood Science book series (SSWOO)


Tree crowns, unmerchantable tops, stumps, and roots form a huge reserve of renewable raw material. Compared with merchantable stems, some 50% additional biomass is potentially available from these unutilized tree components in silviculturally managed forests and, if undersized trees and defected stem parts are included, a considerably higher percentage in overmature, unmanaged forests.


Polysaccharide Shrinkage Alkaloid Polyphenol Pectin 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pentti Hakkila
    • 1
  1. 1.Finnish Forest Research InstituteHelsinkiFinland

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