AIDS as a Neuropeptide Disorder: Does HIV Bind to a VIP Receptor?

  • J. M. Hill
  • A. I. Kook
  • A. Harris
Conference paper


By mimicking the molecular structure of the binding site of a neurotransmitter or other endogenous ligand, viruses are known to bind to the receptor of that neurotransmitter and, by subsequent steps, infect the receptor-bearing cells. Toxic effects may also occur to cells when shed viral proteins, although not infectious, bind to a receptor site and block the functions of the endogenous ligand (see recent review by Lentz 1988).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptor Mammillary Nucleus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brenneman DE, Buzy JM, Ruff MR, Pert CB (1988 a) Peptide T prevents gpl20 induced neuronal cell death in vitro: relevance to AIDS dementia. Drug Dev Res 15: 361–369Google Scholar
  2. Brenneman DE, Westbrook GL, Fitzgerald SF, Ennist DL, Elkins KL, Ruff MR, Pert CB (1988 b) Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide. Nature 335: 639–642Google Scholar
  3. Dalgleish AC, Beverly DCL, Clapham PR, Crawford DH, Greaves MF, Weiss RA (1985) The CD 4 ( T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature 312: 763–767Google Scholar
  4. Fahrenkrug J, Emson PC (1982) Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: functional aspects. Br Med Bull 38: 265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gelderblom HR, Hausman EH, Ozel M, Pauli G, Koch MA (1987) Fine structure of human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) and immunolocalization of structural proteins. Virology 156: 171–176Google Scholar
  6. Hill JM, Farrar WI, Pert CB (1986) Localization of the T4 antigen/AIDS virus receptor in monkey and rat brain: prominence in cortical regions. Psychopharmacol Bull 22: 686–694Google Scholar
  7. Lentz LL (1988) Binding of viral attachment protein to host-cell receptor: the Achilles heel of infectious viruses. TIPS 9: 247–252Google Scholar
  8. Navia BA, Jordan BD, Price RW (1986) The AIDS dementia complex. I. Clinical features. Ann Neurol 19: 517–524Google Scholar
  9. Pahwa S, Pahwa R, SaxingerC, Gallo RC, Good GA (1985) Influence of the human T- lymphotropic virus/lymphadenopathy-associated virus on functions of human lymphocytes: evidence for immunosuppressive effects and polyclonal B-cell activation by banded viral preparations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 8198–8202Google Scholar
  10. Pert CB, Hill JM, Ruff MR, Berman RM, Robey WG, Arthur LO, Ruscetti FW, Farrar WL (1986) Octapeptides deduced from the neuropeptide-like pattern of antigen T4 in brain potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus receptor binding and T cell infectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 9254–9258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Price RW, SidtisJ, Rosenblum M (1988) The AIDS dementia complex: some current questions. Ann Neurol 23 (Suppl): S27–S33Google Scholar
  12. Rostene WH (1984) Neurobiological and neuroendocrine functions of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Prog Neurobiol 22: 103–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ruff MR, Martin BM, Ginns EI, Farrar WL, Pert CB (1987) CD 4 receptor binding peptides that block HIV infectivity cause human monocyte chemotaxis: relationship to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. FEBS Lett 211: 17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ruscetti FW, Hill JM, Pert CB (1988) Visualization of the human helper lymphocyte related antigen (T4) in primate brain: implications for HTLV-III/LAV infection. Peptides 9:97– 104Google Scholar
  15. Sacerdote P, Ruff MR, Pert CB (1987) Vasoactive intestinal peptide 1–12: a ligand for the CD4 ( T4)/human immunodeficiency virus receptor. J Neurosci Res 18: 102–107Google Scholar
  16. Said SI, MuttV (1970) Polypeptide with broad biological activity: isolation from small intestine. Science 169: 1217–1222Google Scholar
  17. Shaffer MM, Moody TW (1986) Autoradiographic visualization of CNS receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide. Peptides 7: 283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Smith CC, Sacerdote P, Hallberg P, Sternberg E, Martin BM, Pert CB, Ruff MR (1988) Tritiated D-Ala1-peptide T binding: a pharmacologic basis for the design of drugs which inhibit HIV receptor binding. Drug Dev Res 15: 371–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Hill
    • 1
  • A. I. Kook
  • A. Harris
    • 2
  1. 1.LDN, NICHD, NIHBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Section on Brain Biochemistry, Clinical Neuroscience BranchNational Institute of Mental Health, NIHBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations