Scanned and Fixed Beam Microscopy of Cytoskeletal Components

  • A. Engel
  • R. Reichelt
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Biophysics book series (BIOPHYSICS, volume 3)


Fixed beam light microscopy is the oldest technique used to reveal the structure of living organisms. The origin of the light microscope is uncertain, but it is connected to the discovery of the telescope by Lippershey in 1608 and its first application by Galilei in the years to follow. The first description of a light microscope and its application to study the world of the very small is by Hooke in his Micrographica (1665). Due to a continuous development of light microscopes {which today provide a resolution given by the theoretical limit (δ = 0.61 · λ /NA; λ= wavelength, NA = numerical aperture)} and the use of fluorescent immunolabelling (Fujiwara and Pollard, 1976), the substructure of cells can now be directly visualised in vivo. Exploiting this resolution as well as the outstanding dynamic range, sensitivity and linearity of charge coupled device (CCD) imaging systems and combining these with digital image processing techniques, cellular organelles can be imaged in three dimensions (Agard et al., 1988). Very recently the combination of high resolution interference contrast light microscopy with video technique and image processing (Allen, 1985; Inoue, 1981) has allowed the motion of single organelles to be followed at a nm-scale resolution (Gelles et al.,1988).


Scanning Tunneling Microscope Scan Transmission Electron Microscopy Dark Field Image Nuclear Pore Complex Electron Energy Loss Spectrum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Engel
    • 1
  • R. Reichelt
    • 1
  1. 1.M. E. Müller-Institute for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy at the BiocenterUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland

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