Advertisement

The Calcium Channel and Vascular Injury

  • S. Kazda
Conference paper
Part of the Bayer AG Centenary Symposium book series (BAYER)

Abstract

The specific calcium antagonists have well-defined mechanisms of action and have become tools for identification of the pathogenetic role of calcium ions in a variety of diseases. Hypertension is a typical example. By using verapamil, nifedipine, or diltiazem it was possible to show that increased transmembrane calcium availability in the small resistance vessels is the cause of elevated vascular tone in experimental or human hypertension (Aoki et al. 1976; Lederballe-Pedersen 1981). Moreover, the calcium content in vascular wall of spontaneously hypertensive rats with established hypertension progressively increases with increasing age without additional increase in blood pressure.

Keywords

Calcium Antagonist Calcium Overload Cardiomyopathic Hamster Hypertensive Vascular Disease Small Resistance Vessel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aoki K, Yamashita K, Suzuki A, Takikawa K, Hotta K (1976) Uptake of calcium ions by sarcoplasmic reticulum from heart and arterial smooth muscle in the spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR). Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 3:27–30Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arieff AI, Massry SG (1974) Calcium metabolism of brain in acute renal failure. J Clin Invest 53:387–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bogin E, Massry SG, Harary J (1981) Effect of parathyroid hormone on rat heart cells. J Clin Invest 67: 1215–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bork AB (1968) Effects of purified parathyroid hormone on the calcium metabolism of monkey kidney cells. Endocrinology 83:1312--1322Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fleckenstein A, Frey M, von Witzleben H (1983) Vascular calcium overload - a pathogenic factor in arteriosclerosis and its neutralization by calcium antagonists. In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica. Amsterdam-Oxford-Princeton pp 36–54Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garthoff B, Bellemann P (1987) Effects of salt loading and nitrendipine on dihydropyridine receptors in hypertensive rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 10 (suppl 10):S36-S38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jaffe S, Sutherland LE, Barker DV, Dahl LK (1970) Effect of chronic salt ingestion: morphologic findings in kidneys of rats with differing susceptibilities of hypertension. Arch Pathol 90:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kazda S, Garthoff B, Luckhaus G, Nash G (1982) Prevention of cerebrovascular lesions and mortality in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats by the calcium antagonist nimodipine. In: Godfraind T, Albertini A, Paoletti R (eds) Calcium modulators. Elsevier Biomedical Press, New York, pp155–167Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kazda S, Garthoff B, Luckhaus G (1983) Calcium antagonists in hypertensive disease: experimental evidence for a new therapeutic concept. Postgraduate Med J 59 (suppl 2):78–83Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kazda S, Garthoff B, Hirth C, Preis W, Stasch JP (1986) Parathyroidectomy mimicks the protective effect of the calcium antagonist nimodipine in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertension 4 (suppl 3):S482-S485Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kazda S, Garthoff B, Luckhaus G (1986) Calcium and malignant hypertension in animal experiments: effects of experimental manipulation of calcium influx. Am J Nephrol 6 (suppl 1): 145–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lederballe-Pedersen O, (1981) Calcium blockade as a therapeutic principle in arterial hypertension. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 49 (suppl 11):1–31Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Luckhaus G, Garthoff B, Kazda S (1982) Prevention of hypertensive vasculopathy by nifedipine in salt-loaded Dahl rats. Arzneim Forsch (Drug Res) 32:1421–1425Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nickerson PA, Conran RM (1981) Parathyroidectomy ameliorates vascular lesions induced by deoxycorticosterone in rat. Am J Pathol 105:185–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Okamoto K, Yamori Y, Nagaoka A (1974) Establishment of the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Circ Res 34,35 (suppl 1):143–153Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wagner JA, Reynolds IJ, Weisman HF, Dudeck P, Weisfeldt ML, Snyder SH (1986) Calcium antagonist receptors in cardiomyopathic hamster: selective increases in heart, muscle, brain. Science 232:515–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kazda
    • 1
  1. 1.Bayer AG, Institute of PharmacologyWuppertal 1Germany

Personalised recommendations