The Application of the Second Law Technique for the Prediction of Trends in the Development of a Factory of the Future
This paper is concerned with the development of a formal technique for the prediction of technology development. The production, shaping and treatment of steel is discussed in order to demonstrate the use of prediction technique.
Exergy function is employed for the estimation of the cost of the manufacture of metal products. The schematic exergy balances for producing, refining and solidifying of liquid steel are constructed. The conditions to minimize exergy consumption during steelmaking are considered and ways to improve energy use are defined. Analysis of novel processes demonstrates that exergy balance enables trend prediction in metallurgical technology development. The paper demonstrates the application of exergy analysis for technology design. As an example, the energy effective process for the conversion of iron ore into a commercial steel product is suggested.
KeywordsFine Concentrate Molten Steel Exergy Analysis Liquid Bath Exergy Loss
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.H.H. Kellog, “Energy Efficiency in the Age of Scarcity,” Journal of Metals. June 1974.Google Scholar
- 2.Y.M. El-Saed, and R.B. Evans, “Thermoeconomics and the Design of Heat Systems,” Journal of Engineering for Power. Jan. 1970, pp. 27–35.Google Scholar
- 3.T.J. Kotas, The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis. Butterworth, 1985, pp. 29–37, 162-171.Google Scholar
- 4.G.E. Ahern, The Exergy Methods of Energy Systems Analysis. Wiley, 1980, pp. 73–78.Google Scholar
- 5.R. Gagiolli and S.W. Wepter, “Exergy Economics,” Energy. Aug. 1980, pp. 823–839.Google Scholar
- 6.E. Bengtsson, et. al., “The Chemistry of the ELRED Process,” Iron and SteelmakerOct. 1981, pp. 30–35.Google Scholar
- 7.R. Irving, “The INRED Process: An Iron Making Option,” Iron Age. July 6, 1981, pp. 21–23.Google Scholar
- 8.Y. Kozhgevnikov, et. al., “Physical Chemical Fundamentals and Outline of the Technology of Continuous ’Ore-Steel’ Process,” Physical Chemistry of Direct Iron and Steel Production. Nauka, Moscow, 1977, pp. 11–18.Google Scholar
- 9.T.L. Mazel, “Ladle Injection Metallurgy, Where It’s At, Where It’s Going and Why,” 33. Metal Producing. April 1981, pp. 53–59.Google Scholar
- 10.G.I. McManus, “Continuous Casting Continues to Evolve New Techniques.” Iron AgeFeb. 2, 1981, pp. 7–11.Google Scholar
- 11.E.S. Geskin, Steelmaking Method. U.S. Patents: 4, 434, 003 of Feb. 28, 1984 and 4, 480, 373 of Nov. 6, 1984.Google Scholar