Current Status of Urinary Stone Therapy

  • K. Miller
Conference paper


Treatment of calculi in the upper urinary tract has undergone a complete change in recent years. Whereas in the period before 1980 open surgery was the only way of removing stones from the ureter or the kidney, currently open surgery represents only about 1% of the procedures applied for the removal of urinary calculi. This dramatic change has been brought about by the development of new forms of lithotripsy. Basically two different principles are employed: contact-free lithotripsy by means of extracorporeally induced Shockwaves (ESWL) and lithotripsy under endoscopic guidance using electro-hydraulic, ultrasonic and, most recently, Laser as energy source. Endoscopic guided lithotripsy is performed in the renal collecting system as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and in the ureter as ureteroscopy (URS).


Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy Ureteral Stone Stone Size Stone Removal Ureteral Calculus 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of UrologyUniversity of UlmUlmFed. Rep. of Germany

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