Advertisement

Regulation of B-Cell Populations

  • I. C. M. MacLennan
  • S. Oldfield
  • Y.-J. Liu
  • P. J. L. Lane
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 79)

Abstract

B cells carry antigen-specific receptors in the form of surface-bound immunoglobulin, which has a uniform antigen-binding capacity for any one B cell. As the body has the potential to produce specific antibodies in response to a vast range of antigens, it follows that it must have a correspondingly large number of B cells bearing the appropriate immunoglobulin.

Keywords

Somatic Mutation Germinal Centre Marginal Zone Follicular Dendritic Cell Secondary Lymphoid Organ 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson P, Smith DH, Ingram DL, Wilkins J, Wehrle PF, Howie VM (1977) Antibody to polyribophosphate of Haemophilias influenzae type b in infants and children: Effect of immunisation with polyribophosphate. J Inf Diseases 136: 557.Google Scholar
  2. Askonas BA, Williamson AR (1972) Factors affecting the propagation of a B cell clone forming antibody to the 2,4-dinitrophenyl group. Eur J Immunol 2: 487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Askonas BA, Williamson AR, Wright BEG (1970) Selection of a single antibody-forming cell clone and its propagation in syngeneic mice. Proc Nat Acad Sci 67: 1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basten A, Howard JE (1973) Thymus independence. In: Davies AJS, Carver RL Contemporary topics in immunobiology. Plenum Press, New York, p 265.Google Scholar
  5. Bazin H, Platteau B, MacLennan ICM, Johnson GD (1985) B-cell production and differentiation in adults rats. Immunology 54: 79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Benner R, Hijmans W, Haaijman JJ (1981) The bone marrow: the major source of immunoglobulins, but still a neglected site of antibody formation. Clin exp Immunol 46: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berek C, Griffiths GM, Milstein C (1985) Molecular events during maturation of the immune response to oxazalone. Nature 316: 412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bofill M, Janossy G, Janossa M, Burford GD, Seymour GD, Wernet P, Kelemen E (1985) Human B cell development II. Subpopulations in the human foetus. J Immunol 134: 1539.Google Scholar
  9. Brown JC, Harris G, Papamichail M, Sljivic VS, Holborow EJ (1973) The localisation of aggregated human γ-lobulin in the spleens of normal mice. Immunology 24: 955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Campana D, Janossy G, Bofill M, Trejdosiewicz LK, Ma D, Hoffbrand V, Mason DY, Lebaque AM, Forster HK (1985) Human B cell development: 1. Phenotypic differences of B lymphocytes in bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissue. J Immunol 134: 1524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark P, Normansell DE, Innes DJ, Hess CE (1986) Lymphocyte subsets in normal bone marrow. Blood 67: 1600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Coffman RL (1982) Surface antigen expression and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement during mouse pre-B cell development. Immunol Rev 69: 5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coico RF, Bhogal BS, Thorbecke GJ (1983) The relationship of germinal centres in lymphoid tissue to immunological memory. VI. Transfer of B cell memory with lymph node cells fractionated according to their receptors for peanut agglutinin. J Immunol 131: 2254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Corbel C, Melchers F (1983) Requirement for macrophages or T cell-derived factors in the mitogenic stimulation of murine B cells by LPS. Eur J Immunol 13: 528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coulie PG, Vanhecke A, Van Daimme J, Cayphas S, Poupart P, DeWit L, Content J (1987) High-affinity binding sites for human 26-kDa protein (interleukin 6, B cell stimulatory factor-2, human hybridoma plasmacytoma growth factor, Interferon β2), different from those of type 1 interferon (α, β) on lymphoblastoid cells. Eur J Immunol 17: 1435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cowan MJ, Amman AJ, Wara DW, Howie YM, Schultz L, Doyle N, Kaplan M (1978) Pneumococcal polysaccharide immunisation in infants and children. Pediatrics 62: 721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cumano A, Rajewsky K (1985) Structure of primary anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP) antibodies in normal and idiotypically suppressed C57BL/6 mice. Eur J Immunol 15: 512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cumano A, Rajewski K (1986) Clonal recruitment and somatic mutation in the generation of immunological memory to the hapten NP. Embo J 5: 2459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Deenan GJ, Hunt SV, Opstelten D (1987) A Stathmokinetic study of B lymphocytopoiesis in rat bone marrow: proliferation of cells containing cytoplasmic μ-chains, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and carrying His 24 antigen. J Immunol 139: 702.Google Scholar
  20. Exely R, Gordon J, Nathan P, Walker L, Clemens M (1987) Anti-proliferative effect of interferons on Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells: induction of cell differentiation and loss of response to autocrine growth factors. Int J Cancer 40: 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gagnon RF, MacLennan ICM (1982) Regulation of secondary antibody responses. II. The requirement for continued antigen supply to maintain IgG production. Immunology 45: 283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gowans JL (1959) The recirculation of lymphocytes from blood to lymph in the rat. J Physiol Lond 146: 54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gray D, MacLennan ICM, Bazin H, Khan M (1982) Migrant μ+δ+ and static μ+δ+— B lymphocyte subsets. Eur J Immunol 12: 564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gray D, Kumararatne DS, Lortan J, Khan M, MacLennan ICM (1984) Relation of intra-splenic migration of marginal zone B cells to antigen localisation on follicular dendritic cells. Immunol 52: 659.Google Scholar
  25. Gray D, Chassoux D, MacLennan ICM, Bazin H (1985) Selective depression of thymus-independent anti-DNP antibody responses induced by adult but not neonatal splenectomy. Clin exp Immunol 60:78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gray D, MacLennan ICM, Lane PJL (1986) Virgin B cell recruitment and the life span of memory clones during antibody responses to DNP-Hemocyanin. Eur J Immunol 16: 641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Griffiths GM, Berek C, Kaartinen M, Milstein C (1984) Somatic mutation and the maturation of immune response to 2-phenyloxazolone. Nature 312: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ho F, Lortan J, Khan M, MacLennan ICM (1986) Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations. Eur J Immunol 16: 1297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Humphrey JH, Grennan D (1981) Different macrophage populations distinguished by means of fluorescent polysaccharides. Recognition and properties of marginal zone macrophages. Eur J Immunol 11: 212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Humphrey JH, Sundaram V (1985) Origin and turnover of follicular dendritic cells and marginal zone macrophages in the mouse spleen. Adv Exp Med Biol 186: 167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Inaba K, Witmer MD, Steinman RM (1984) Clustering of dendritic cells, helper T lymphocytes, and histocompatible B cells during primary antibody responses in vitro. J Exp Med 160: 858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kaartinen M, Griffiths GM, Markham AF, Milstein C (1983) mRNA sequences define an unusually restricted IgG response to 2-phenyloxazolone and its early diversification. Nature 304: 320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Katz SI, Kunihiko T, Sachs DH (1979) Epidermal Langerhans cells are derived from cells originating in the bone marrow. Nature 282: 324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kearney JF, Lawton AR (1975) Blymphocyte differentiation induced by lipopolysaccharide. II. Response of fetal lymphocytes. J Immunol 115: 677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Klaus GGB (1979) Irreversible receptor modulation on B lymphocytes and the control of antibody forming cells by antigen. Immunol Rev 43: 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Klaus GGB, Humphrey JH (1977) The generation of memory cells. I. the role of C3 in the generation of B memory cells. Immunology 33: 31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Klaus GGB, Humphrey JH, Kunkl A, Dongworth DW (1980) The follicular dendritic cell: Its role in antigen presentation in the generation of immunological memory. Immunol Rev 53: 3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Koch G, Lok BD, Benner R (1982a) Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow during secondary type responses to various thymus-independent antigens. Immunobiol 163: 484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koch G, Lok BD, van Oudenaren A, Benner R (1982b) The capacity and mechanism of bone marrow antibody formation by thymus-independent antigens. J Immunol 128: 1497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Korsmeyer SJ, Waldmann TA (1986) Immunoglobulins II: Gene organisation and assembly. In: Stites DP, Stobo JD, Wells JV (eds) Basic and clincal immunology, 6th edn. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Connecticut, pp 37–49.Google Scholar
  41. Kroese FGM, Wubbena AS, Nieuwenhuis P (1986) Germinal centre formation and follicular antigen trapping in the spleen of lethally X-irradiated and reconstituted mice. Immunol 57: 99.Google Scholar
  42. Kumararatne DS, MacLennan ICM (1981) Cells of the marginal zone of the spleen are lymphoctes derived from recirculating precursors. Eur J Immunol 11: 865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kumararatne DS, Bazin H, MacLennan ICM (1981) Marginal zones: the major B cell compartment of rat spleens. Eur J Immunol 11: 858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kumararatne DS, Gray D, MacLennan ICM, Lortan J, Platteau B, Bazin H (1985) The paradox of high rates of B cell production in bone marrow and the longevity of most mature B cells. Adv Exp Med Biol 186: 73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Landreth KS, Rosse C, Clagett J (1981) Myologenous production and maturation of B lymphocytes in the mouse. J Immunol 127: 2027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lane PJL, Gray D, MacLennan ICM (1986) Differences in recruitment of virgin B cells into antibody responses to thymus-dependent and thymus-independent type-2 antigens. Eur J Immunol 16: 1569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lane PJL, Zhang J, Liu Y-J, MacLennan ICM (1988) unpublished data.Google Scholar
  48. Ling NR, MacLennan ICM, Mason DY (1987) Analysis of the B cell and plasma cell panels. In: McMichael AJ et al. (eds) Leukocyte typing III white cell differentiation antigens. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  49. Liu Y-J, Oldfield S, MacLennan ICM (1988a) Memory B cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses colonise the splenic marginal zones. Eur J Immunol. In press.Google Scholar
  50. Liu Y-J, Oldfield S, MacLennan ICM (1988b) unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  51. Lortan JE, Gray D, Kumararatne DS, Platteau B, Bazin H, MacLennan ICM (1985) Regulation of the size of the recirculating B cell pool of adult rats. Adv Exp Med Biol 186: 579.Google Scholar
  52. Lortan JE, Roobottom CA, Oldfield S, MacLennan ICM (1987) Newly-produced virgin B cells migrate to secondary lymphoid organs but their capacity to enter follicles is restricted. Eur J Immunol 17: 1311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. MacLennan ICM, Gray D (1986) Antigen driven selection of virgin and memory B cells. Immunol Rev 91: 61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. MacLennan, Gray D, Kumararatne DS, Bazin H (1982) The lymphocytes of the splenic marginal zones: a distinct B cell lineage. Immunology Today 3: 305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maizels N, Bothwell A (1985) The T cell-independent immune response to the hapten NP uses a large repertoire of heavy chain genes. Cell 43: 715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mosier DE, Subbarao B (1982) Thymus-independent antigens: complexity of B lymphocyte activation revealed. Immunology Today 3: 217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Namikawa R, Mizuno T, Matsuoka H, Fukami H, Ueda R, Itoh G, Matsuyama M, Takahashi T (1986) Ontogenic development of T and B cells and non-lymphoid cells in the white pulp of human spleen. Immunology 57: 61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Nieuwenhuis P, Ford WL (1976) Comparative migration of T and B cells in the rat spleen and lymph nodes. Cell Immunol 23; 254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Oldfield S, Liu Y-J, MacLennan ICM (1988) In preparation.Google Scholar
  60. Opstelten D, Osmond DG (1983) Pre-B cells in mouse bone marrow: Immunofluorescence stathmokinetic studies of proliferation of cytoplasmic μ-chain-bearing cells in normal mice. J Immunol 131:2635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Opstelten D, Osmond DG (1985) Regulation of pre-B cell proliferation in bone marrow: immunofluorescence stathmokinetic studies of cytoplasmic μ-chain-bearing cells in anti-IgM-treated mice, hematologically deficient mutant mice and mice given sheep red blood cells. Eur J Immunol 15:599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Osmond DG, Nossal GJV (1974) Differentiation of lymphocytes in mouse bone marrow. II. Kinetics of maturation and renewal of antiglobulin-binding cells studied by double labeling. Cell Immunol 13: 132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Osmond DG, Fahlman MTE, Fulop GM, Rahal DM (1981) Regulation and localisation of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow. Ciba Foudation Symposium 84: 68.Google Scholar
  64. Perlamutter RM, Koltz JL, Band MW, Nahn M, Davie JM, Hood L (1984) Multiple VH gene segments encode murine anti-streptococcal antibodies. J exp Med 159: 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pezzutto A, Dorken B, Molenhauer G, Rabinovitch PS, Clark EA (1987) Amplification of B-cell activation by workshop monoclonal antibodies to the CD22 B cell antigen. In: McMichael AJ et al. (eds) Leukocyte typing III. Oxford University Press, Oxford p 361.Google Scholar
  66. van Rooijen N, Claassen E, Eikelenboom P (1986) Is there a single differentiation pathway for all antibody forming cells in the spleen. Immunology Today 7: 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Siekevitz M, Kocks C, Rajewsky K, Dildrop R (1987) Analysis of somatic mutation and class switching in naive and memory B cells generating adoptive primary and secondary responses. Cell 48: 757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sprent J, Basten A (1973) Circulating T and B cells of the mouse. II. Lifespan. Cell Immunol 7: 40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sprent J, Miller JFAP (1972) Thoracic duct lymphocytes from nude mice. I. Migratory properties and lifespan. Eur J Immunol 2: 384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Strober S (1975) Immune function, cell surface characteristics and maturation of B cell subpopulations. Transplant rev 24: 84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Tew JG, Mandel TE (1978) The maintenance and regulation of serum antibody levels: Evidence indicating a role for antigen retained in lymphoid follicles. J Immunol 120: 1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Tew JG, Mandel TE (1979) Prolonged antigen half-life in the lymphoid follicles of specifically immunized mice. Immunology 37: 69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Tonegawa S (1983) Somatic generation of antibody diversity. Nature 302: 575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Walker L, Guy G, Brown G, Rowe M, Milner AE, Gordon J (1986) Control of human B-lymphocyte replication. 1. Characterization of novel activation sites that precede the entry of G0 B cells into cycle. Immunology 58: 583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Wysocki LJ, Manser T, Gefter ML (1986) Somatic evolution of variable region structure during an immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 1847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. C. M. MacLennan
  • S. Oldfield
  • Y.-J. Liu
  • P. J. L. Lane

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations