Regeneration of the Retinotectal Projection in Goldfish: Selective Stabilization of Retinotopic Synapses by Correlated Activity

  • J. Schmidt
Conference paper


In most studies of postlesion neural plasticity, the question centers around the rearrangement of connections of the remaining unlesioned neurons. However since the retinotectal projection of fish and frogs readily regenerates, the question centers around the mechanisms by which the regenerating axons select appropriate termination sites to reestablish the precise retinotopic map on the tectum.


Ganglion Cell Correlate Activity Optic Nerve Crush Ocular Dominance Column Selective Stabilization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adamson JR, Burke J, Grobstein P (1984) Reestablishment of the ipsilateral oculotectal projection after optic nerve crush in the frog: evidence for synaptic remodelling during regeneration. J Neurosci 4: 2635–2649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnett DW (1978) Statistical dependence between neighboring retinal ganglion cells in goldfish. Exp Brain Res 32: 49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonhoeffer F, Huf J (1982) In vitro experiments on axon guidance demonstrating an anterior-posterior gradient on the tectum. EMBO J 1: 427–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Boss VC, Schmidt JT (1984) Activity and the formation of ocular dominance patches in dually innervated tectum of goldfish. J Neurosci 4: 2891–2905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Changeux JP, Danchin A (1976) Selective stabilization of developing synapses as a mechanism for the specification of neuronal networks. Nature 264: 705–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cline HT, Debski EA, Constantine-Paton M (1987) N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist desegregates eye-specific stripes. P.N.A.S.U.S.A. 84: 4342–4345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cook JE, Rankin ECC (1986) Impaired refinement of the regenerated retinotectal projection of the goldfish in stroboscopic light: a quantitative HRP study. Exp Brain Res 63: 421–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Easter SS (1985) The continuous formation of the retinotectal map in goldfish with special attention to axonal pathway. In: Edelman GM, Gall WE, Cowan MW (eds) The molecular bases of neural development. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Edwards DL, Grafstein B (1983) Intraocular tetrodotoxin in goldfish hinders optic nerve regeneration. Brain Res 269: 1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eisele LE, Schmidt JT (1988) Activity sharpens the regenerated retinotectal projection in goldfish: sensitive period for strobe illumination and lack of effect on synaptogenesis and on ganglion cell receptive field properties. J Neurobiol 19: 395–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fraser S (1985) Cell interactions involved in neuronal patterning: An experimental and theoretical approach. In: Edelman GM, Gall WE, Cowan MW (eds) The molecular bases of neural development. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Fujisawa H (1987) Mode of growth of retinal axons within the tectum of Xenopus tadpoles and implications in the ordered neuronal connections between the retina and tectum. J Comp Neurol 260: 127–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fujisawa H, Tani N, Watanabe K, Ibata Y (1982) Branching of regenerating retinal axons and preferential selection of appropriate branches for specific neuronal connection in the newt. Dev Biol 90: 43–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ginsberg KS, Johnsen JA, Levine MW (1984) Common noise in the firing of neighboring ganglion cells in goldfish retina. J Physiol (Lond) 351: 433–444Google Scholar
  15. Harris EW, Ganong AH, Cotman CW (1984) Long term potentiation in the hippocampus involves activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Brain Res 323: 132–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hebb DO (1949) The organization of behavior. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Humphrey MF, Beazley LD (1982) An electrophysiological study of early retinotectal projection patterns during optic nerve regeneration in Hyla moorei. Brain Res 239: 595–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. MacDermott AB, Mayer ML, Westbrook GL, Smith SJ, Barker JL (1986) NMDA receptor activation increases cytoplasmic calcium concentration in cultured spinal cord neurons. Nature 321: 519–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Meyer RL (1980) Mapping the normal and regenerating retinotectal projection of goldfish with autoradiographic methods. J Comp Neurol 189: 273–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Meyer RL (1982) Tetrodotoxin blocks the formation of ocular dominance columns in goldfish. Science 218: 589–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meyer RL (1983) Tetrodotoxin inhibits the formation of refined retinotopography in goldfish. Dev Brain Res 6: 293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murray M, Edwards M (1982) A qunatitative study of the reinnervation of goldfish optic tectum following optic nerve crush. J Comp Neurol 209: 363–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Murray M, Sharma S, Edwards M (1982) Target regulation of synaptic number in the compressed retinotectal projection of goldfish. J Comp Neurol 209: 374–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Obata K (1977) Development of neuromuscular transmission in culture with a variety of neurons and tetrodotoxin. Brain Res 119: 141–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rankin ECC, Cook JE (1986) Topographic refinement of the regenerating retinotectal projection of the goldfish in standard laboratory conditions: a qunatitative WGA-HRP study. Exp Brain Res 63: 432–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sachs GM, Jacobson M, Caviness VS (1986) Postnatal changes in arborization patterns of murine retinocollicular axons. J Comp Neurol 246: 395–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sakaguchi DS, Murphey RK (1985) Map formation in the developing Xenopus retinotectal system: an examination of ganglion cell terminal arborizations. J Neurosci 5: 3228–3245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Schmidt JT (1982) The formation of retinotectal projections. Trends Neurosci 5: 111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schmidt JT (1985) Factors involved in retinotopic map formation: complementary roles for membrane recognition and activity dependent synaptic stabilization. In: Edelman GM, Gall WE, Cowan WM (eds) The molecular bases of neural development. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmidt JT (1987) Increased potentiation of postsynaptic response correlates with sensitive period during optic nerve regeneration in goldfish. Neurosci Abstr 13 (in press)Google Scholar
  31. Schmidt JT, Edwards DL (1983) Activity sharpens the map during the regeneration of the retinotectal projection in goldfish. Brain Res 269: 29–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmidt JT, Eisele LE (1985) Stroboscopic illumination and dark rearing block the sharpening of the retinotectal map in goldfish. Neuroscience 14: 535–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schmidt JT, Edwards DL, Stuermer CAO (1983) The reestablishment of synaptic transmission by regenerating optic axons in goldfish: time course and effects of blocking activity by intraocular injection of tetrodotoxin. Brain Res 269: 15–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schmidt JT, Buzzard M, Turcotte J, Tieman DG (1988) Staining of regenerated optic arbors in goldfish tectum: Progressive changes in immature arbors and a comparison of mature regenerated arbors with normal arbors. J Comp Neurol 269: 565–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schneider GE, Rava L, Sachs GM, Jhaveri S (1981) Widespread branching of retinotectal axons: transient in normal development and anomalous in adults with neonatal lesions. Neurosci Abstr 7: 732Google Scholar
  36. Sperry RW (1963) Chemoaffinity in the orderly growth of nerve fiber patterns and connections. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 50: 703–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stryker MP, Harris WA (1986) Binocular impulse blockade prevents the formation of ocular dominance columns in cat visual cortex. J Neurosci 6: 2117–2133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Stuermer CAO, Easter SS (1984) A comparison of the normal and regenerated retinotectal pathways of goldfish. J Comp Neurol 223: 57–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Willshaw DJ, Malsburg C von der (1976) How patterned neural connections can be set up by self-organization. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 194: 421–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Schmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesState University of New York at AlbanyAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations