Function of the Heart

  • H. Antoni


The blood can perform its many-faceted role only if it circulates continually through the body. The pump that drives the blood through the vessels is the heart. It can be considered as two hollow organs — the right half and the left half (Fig. 19-1) — with muscular walls. Each half comprises an atrium and a ventricle. The right half receives oxygen-depleted blood from the entire body and sends it to the lungs, where it is charged with oxygen. The oxygenated blood is returned to the left half of the heart and thence distributed to the organs of the body. The right heart, then, pumps out only deoxygenated blood, and the left half only oxygenated blood.


Stroke Volume Refractory Period Integral Vector Vector Loop Absolute Refractory Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Textbooks and Handbooks

  1. 1.
    Berne, R.M., Sperelakis, N., Geiger, S.R. (Eds.): Handbook of Physiology. Section 2: The Cardiovascular System. Vol. I The Heart. Bethesda: Amer. Physiol. Soc. (1979)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carmeliet, E., Vereecke, J.: Electrogenesis of the action potential and automaticity. In: Berne et al. (1)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cranefield, P.F.: The Conduction of the Cardiac Impulse. Mount Kisco-New York: Futura Publishing Company (1979)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delius, W., Gerlach, E., Grobecker, H., Kübler, W. (Eds.): Catecholamines and the Heart. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer (1981)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fleckenstein, A.: Calcium Antagonism in Heart and Smooth Muscle — Experimental Facts and Therapeutic Prospects. New York-Chichester-Brisbane-Toronto-Singapure: Wiley-Interscience Publ. (1983)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fozzard, H.A., Haber, E., Jennings, R.B., Katz, A.M., Morgan, H.E. (Eds.): The Heart and Cardiovascular System. New York: Raven Press (1986)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hille, B.: Ionic Channels of Excitable Membranes: Sunderland Mass.: Sinauer (1984)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Langer, G.A., Brady, A.J. (Eds.): The Mammalian Myocardium. New York: Wiley (1974)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noble, D.: The Initiation of the Heartbeat. Oxford: Clarendon Press (1979)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Porter, R., Fitzsimons, D.W. (Eds.): The Phhysiological Basis of Starling’s Law of the Heart. Ciba Foundation Symposium. Amsterdam-New York: Associated Scientific Publishers (1974)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rüegg, J.C.: Calcium in Muscle Activation. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1986Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rupp, H. (Ed.): Regulation of Heart Function — Basic Concepts and Clinical Applications. New York: Thieme Inc. (1986)Google Scholar

Original Papers and Reviews

  1. 13.
    Allessie, M.A., Bonke, F., Schopman, F.J.G.: Circus movement in rabbit atrial muscle as a mechanism of tachycardia. Circ. Res. 33, 54 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 14.
    Antoni, H., Jacob, R., Kaufmann, R.: Mechanical response of the frog’s and mammalian myocardium to modifications of the action potential duration by constant pulses. Pflügers Arch. 306, 33 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 15.
    Bassenge, E., Busse, R.: Endothelial modulation of coronary tone. Progress in Cardiovasc. Diseases, 30, 349 (1981)Google Scholar
  4. 16.
    Di Francesco, D.: A new interpretation of the pacemaker current in calf Purkinje fibres. J. Physiol. 374, 359 (1981)Google Scholar
  5. 17.
    Irisawa, H., Nakayama, T, Noma, A.: Membrane currents of single pacemaker cells from rabbit S-A and A-V nodes. In: D. Noble and D. Powell (Edit.): Electrophysiology of Single Cardiac Cells. London: Academic Press (1987)Google Scholar
  6. 18.
    Jacob, R., Kissling, G., Ebrecht, G., Holubarsch, C., Medugorac, I., Rupp, H.: Adaptive and pathological alterations in experimental cardiac hypertrophy. Advan. Myocardiol. 4, 55 (1983)Google Scholar
  7. 19.
    Jacob, R., Just, H.J., Holubarsch, C. (Eds.): Cardiac Energetics — Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Basic Res. Cardiol. 82 (Suppl. 2) (1987)Google Scholar
  8. 20.
    Noble, D.: The surprising heart: A review of recent progress in cardiac electrophysiology. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 353, 1 (1984)Google Scholar
  9. 21.
    Reuter, H.: Exchange of calcium ions in the mammalian myocardium. Mechanisms and physiological significance. Circ. Res. 34, 599 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 22.
    Schrader, J.: Sites of action and production of adenosine in the heart. In: Burnstock, G.: Purinergic Receptors. London: Chapmann & Hall, pp. 120 (1981)Google Scholar
  11. 23.
    Trautwein, W.: Membrane currents in cardiac muscle fibres. Physiol. Rev 53, 793 (1973)Google Scholar
  12. 24.
    Weidmann, S.: The diffusion of radiopotassium across intercalated discs of mammalian cardiac muscle. J. Physiol. 187, 323 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Antoni

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations