Immunopharmacology of Mast Cells

  • M. K. Church
  • R. C. Benyon
  • L. S. Clegg
  • S. T. Holgate
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 87 / 1)


The mast cell was first described by Paul EHrlich in 1876, as a tissue fixed cell containing many granules which exhibited metachromasia when exposed to basic dyes such as toluidine blue. This histochemical characteristic indicates the presence of the highly acidic proteoglycan, heparin, one of the many preformed chemical mast cell mediators which are secreted in response to cell activation. At the turn of the century, the structural elucidation of histamine (WIndaus and VOgt 1907), its association with the mast cell (BEst et al. 1927) and its release following anaphylactic reactions in animal models (DAle 1910) established a role for the mast cell in mediating the type 1 or immediate hypersensitivity response associated with allergic reactions. This type of immunological reaction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of skin diseases such as eczema and urticaria. Indeed, the skin has been used as the primary site at which to undertake allergen testing, in the form of intradermal or prick tests, and into which allergens may be introduced in hyposensitisation treatment. Apart from the immediate hypersensitivity reaction involving the reaginic antibody IgE, mast cells play a contributory role in the defence against neoplasia (GOTO et al. 1984), in regulating fibroblast growth and maturation (GUPTA 1970; KAWANAMI et al. 1985) and in the elimination of nematode parasites (WElls 1977). The recognition of a wider role for the mast cell in the pathogenesis of human disease has stimulated renewed interest in this cell. As in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, the potential importance of mast cells in human skin is reflected by the large numbers that are present in this tissue. Because of the relative inaccessibility of tissue mast cells, much of the knowledge that has been gained about mast cell structure and function has been derived from studies of rat peritoneal mast cells, which can be recovered in large numbers and purified to homogeneity. Recently, however, the use of a variety of enzyme digestion techniques has enabled mast cells from other sources to be dispersed. These techniques have provided overwhelming evidence that mast cells from different species, and even from different sites within the same species, exhibit heterogeneity with respect to both structure and function (CHURCH et al. 1982; BEnyon et al. 1987; LOwman et al. 1987). Conclusions drawn from studies of mast cells of one particular animal or body site may not, therefore, be applicable to mast cells of another species or site.


Mast Cell Allergy Clin Immunol Human Mast Cell Mucosal Mast Cell Mast Cell Granule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akam RM, Howarth PH (1984) Differential effects of oral and inhaled salbutamol on mast cell mediated bronchoconstriction in asthma (abstr). Respiration 46 (Suppl 1):2Google Scholar
  2. Austen KF, Brocklehurst WE (1960) Anaphylaxis in chopped guinea pig lung. 1. Effect of peptidase substrates and inhibitors. J Exp Med 113:521–539Google Scholar
  3. Barbaro JF, Zvaifler NJ (1966) Antigen induced histamine release from platelets of rabbits producing homologous PCA antibody. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 122:1245–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bedard PM, Brunet C, Pelletier G, Hebert J (1986) Increased compound 48/80 induced local histamine release from nonlesional skin from patients with chronic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78:1121–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Benyon RC, Church MK, Holgate ST, Hughes PJ (1985) Methyltransferase inhibitors may inhibit histamine released by elevating cyclic AMP in mast cells and basophils (abstr). Br J Pharmacol 86 (Proc Suppl):407 PGoogle Scholar
  6. Benyon RC, Church MK, Clegg LS, Holgate ST (1986 a) Dispersion and characterization of mast cells from human skin. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 79:332–334Google Scholar
  7. Benyon RC, Church MK, Holgate ST (1986 b) IgE-dependent activation of mast cells is not associated with enhanced phospholipid methylation. Biochem Pharmacol 35:2535–2544Google Scholar
  8. Benyon RC, Lowman MA, Church MK (1987) Human skin mast cells:their dispersion, purification and secretory characteristics. J Immunol 138:861–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berridge MJ (1984) Inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers. Biochem J 220:345–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Best CH, Dale HH, Dudley HW, Thorpe WV (1927) The nature of vasodilator constituents of certain tissue extracts. J Physiol (Lond) 62:397–417Google Scholar
  11. Binazzi M, Rampichini L (1959) Investigations on the regional distribution of mast cells in human skin. Ital Gen Rev Dermatol 1:17–21Google Scholar
  12. Black AK, Fincham N, Greaves MW, Hensby CN (1981) Changes in levels of arachidonic acid and prostaglandins D2, E2, F2, and 6-oxo-PGFla in human skin within 48 hours following ultraviolet B radiation. Br J Dermatol 105:353–354Google Scholar
  13. Boam DSW, Stanworth DR, Spanner SG, Ansell GB (1984) Is the stepwise methylation of phosphatidyl ethanolamine relevant to the release of histamine from the mast cell. Biochem Soc Trans 12:782–783Google Scholar
  14. Bowyer A (1968) Observations on the granularity of mast cells in human skin. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 48:574–577Google Scholar
  15. Brain SD, Camp RDR, Leigh IM, Ford-Hutchinson AW (1982) The synthesis of leukotriene B4-like material by cultured human keratinoeytes (abstr). J Invest Dermatol 78:328Google Scholar
  16. Briggaman RA, Schechter NM, Fraki JE, Lazarus GS (1984) Degradation of the epidermal-dermal junction by a proteolytic enzyme from human skin and human polymor-phonuclear leukocytes. J Exp Med 160:1027–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown JM, Chambers DA (1984) Effects of biological response modifiers on plasminogen activator activity in epidermal cell culture. Br J Dermatol lll(Suppl):252–256Google Scholar
  18. Casale TB, Bowman S, Kaliner M (1984) Induction of human cutaneous cell degranulation by opiates and endogenous opioid peptides:evidence for opiate and nonopiate receptor participation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73:775–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Caulfield JP, Lewis RA, Hein A, Austen KF (1980) Secretion of dissociated human pulmonary mast cells:evidence for solubilization of granule contents before discharge. J Cell Biol 85:299–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Center DM, Soter NA, Wasserman SI, Austen KF (1979) Inhibition of neutrophil chemo-taxis in association with experimental angioedema in patients with cold urticaria:a model of chemotactic deactivation in vivo. Clin Exp Immunol 35:112–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Church MK, Hiroi J (1987) Inhibition of IgE-dependent histamine release from human lung mast cells by anti-allergic drugs and salbutamol. Br J Pharmacol 90:421–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Church MK, Young KD (1983) The characteristics of inhibition of histamine release from human lung fragments by sodium cromoglycate, salbutamol and chlorpromazine. Br J Pharmacol 78:671–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Church MK, Pao GJ-K, Holgate ST (1982) Characterization of histamine secretion from dispersed human lung mast cells:effects of anti-IgE, calcium ionophore A23187, compound 48/80 and basic polypeptides. J Immunol 129:2116–2121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Church MK, Mageed RAK, Holgate ST (1983) Human tonsillar mast cells:characterization of histamine secretion and methods of dispersion. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 72:188–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Clegg LS, Church MK, Holgate ST (1985) Histamine secretion from human skin slices in-duced by anti-IgE and artificial secretagogues and the effects of sodium cromoglycate and salbutamol. Clin Allergy 15:321–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cockcroft S, Gomperts BD (1985) Role of guanine nucleotide binding protein in the activation of polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase. Nature 314:534–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen RW, Rosenstreich DL (1986) Discrimination between urticaria-prone and other allergic patients by intradermal skin testing with codeine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77:802–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cowen T, Trigg P, Eady RAJ (1979) Distribution of mast cells in human dermis:develop-ment of a mapping technique. Br J Dermatol 100:635–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cundell DR, Davies RJ (1985) NCA release from human blood lymphocytes:effects of salbutamol and sodium cromoglycate on this release (abstr). J Allergy Clin Immunol 75:109Google Scholar
  30. Czarnetzki BM, Kruger G, Sterry W (1983) In vitro generation of mast cell-like cells from human peripheral mononuclear phagocytes. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 71:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dale HH (1910) Croonian lectures on some chemical factors in the control of the circulation. Lancet I:1179Google Scholar
  32. Dale HH (1910) Croonian lectures on some chemical factors in the control of the circulation. Lancet I:1233Google Scholar
  33. Dale HH (1910) Croonian lectures on some chemical factors in the control of the circulation. Lancet I:1285Google Scholar
  34. Demopoulos CA, Pinckard RN, Hanahan DJ (1979) Platelet activating factor:evidence for 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine as the active component (a new class of lipid chemical mediators). J Biol Chem 254:9355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dollery CT, Heavey DJ, Richmond R, Taylor GW, Vial J (1985) Histamine and peptido- leukotriene release from immunologically challenged guinea-pig skin (abstr). Br J Pharmacol 85 (Proc Suppl):277PGoogle Scholar
  36. Eady RAJ, Cowen T, Marshall TF, Plummer V, Greaves MW (1979) Mast cell population density, blood vessel density and histamine content of normal human skin. Br J Dermatol 100:623–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ehrlich P (1876) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Anilinfärbungen und ihrer Verwendung in der mikroskopischen Technik. Arch Mikr Anat 13:263–277Google Scholar
  38. Enerback L (1966 a) Mast cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. I. Effects of fixation. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 66:289–302Google Scholar
  39. Enerback L (1966 b) Mast cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. II. Dye binding and metachromatic properties. Acta Path Microbiol Scand 66:303–312Google Scholar
  40. Enerback L (1986) Mast cell heterogeneity:the evolution of the concept of a specific mucosal mast cell. In:Befus AD, Bienenstock J, Denburg J A (eds) Mast cell differentiation and heterogeneity. Raven, New York, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  41. Enholm C, Shaw W, Greten H, Brown WV (1975) Purification from human plasma of a heparin-released lipase with activity against triglyceride and phospholipid. J Biol Chem 250:6756–6761Google Scholar
  42. Farr RS, Wardlow ML, Cox CP, Meng KE, Greene DE (1982) Human serum acid labile factor (ALF) is an acyl hydrolase that inactivates platelet activating factor (PAF) (abstr). Fed Proc 41:733Google Scholar
  43. Ford-Hutchinson AW, Bray MA, Doig MY, Shipley ME, Smith MJH (1980) Leukotriene B4, a potent chemotactic and aggregating substance released from polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Nature 286:264–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Foreman JC, Jordan CC, Piotrowski W (1982) Interaction of neurotensin with the substance P receptor mediating histamine release from rat mast cells and the flare in human skin. Br J Pharmacol 77:531–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fraki JE, Hopsu-Havu VK (1975) Human skin proteases. Separation and characterization of two alkaline proteases, one splitting trypsin and the other chymotrypsin substrates. Arch Dermatol Res 253:261–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Frisk-Holmberg M, Uvnas B (1972) The influence of chlorpromazine on the uptake of biogenic amines by rat mast cells in vitro. Acta Physiol Scand 86:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Froese A (1984) Receptors for IgE on mast cells and basophils. Prog Allergy 34:142–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gibbins IL, Furness JB, Costa M, Maclntyre I, Hillyard C, Girgis S (1985) Coexistence of calcitonin gene-related peptide, dynorphin and cholecystokinin in substance P-containing dorsal root ganglion neurones of the guinea-pig. Neurosci Lett 19 (Suppl):S65Google Scholar
  49. Ginsburg H, Nir I, Hammel I, Eren R, Weissman B, Naot Y (1978) Differentiation and activity of mast cells following immunization in cultures of lymph node cells. Immunology 35:485–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Goetzl EJ, Austen KF (1975) Purification and synthesis of eosinophilotactic tetrapeptides of human lung tissue. Identification as eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:4123–4127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Goetzl EJ, Brash AR, Tauber Al, Oates J A, Hubbard WC (1980) Modulation of human neutrophil function by monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Immunology 39:491–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Goetzl EJ, Chernov T, Renold F, Payan DG (1985) Neuropeptide regulation of the expression of immediate hypersensitivity. J Immunol 135:802s–805sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gomperts BD (1983) Involvement of guanine nucleotide binding protein in the gating of calcium by receptors. Nature 306:64–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Goto T, Befus D, Low R, Bienenstock J (1984) Mast cell heterogeneity and hyperplasia in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis of rats. Am Rev Respir Dis 130:797–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grant JA, Lett-Brown MA, Warner JA, Plaut M, Lichtenstein LM, Haak-Frendseho M, Kaplan AP (1986) Activation of basophils. Fed Proc 45:2653–2658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gronnenberg R, Zetterstrom O (1985) Inhibition of the late phase response to anti-IgE in humans by indomethacin. Allergy 40:36–41Google Scholar
  57. Grosman N (1981) Histamine from isolated rat mast cells:effect of morphine and related drugs and their interaction with compound 48/80. Agents Actions 11:196–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gupta RK (1970) Mast cell variations in prostate and urinary bladder. Arch Pathol 89:302–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hagermark O, Hokfelt T, Pernow B (1978) Flare and itch induced by substance P in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 71:233–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Haig DM, McMenamin C, Gunneberg C, Woodbury R, Jarrett EEE (1983) Stimulation of mucosal mast cell growth in normal and nude rat bone marrow cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4499–4503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hamberg M, Svensson J, Wakabayashi T, Samuelsson B (1974) Isolation and structure of two prostaglandin endoperoxides that cause platelet aggregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:345–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hammarstrom S (1983) Leukotrienes. Ann Rev Biochem 52:355–377Google Scholar
  63. Heavey DJ, Kobza-Black A, Barrow SE, Chappell CG, Greaves MW, Dollery CT (1986) Prostaglandin D2 and histamine release in cold urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78:458–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hellstrom B, Holmgren H (1950) Numerical distribution of mast cells in the human skin and heart. Acta Anat (Basel) 10:81–107Google Scholar
  65. Helting T, Lindahl U (1972) Biosynthesis of heparin. Transfer of N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid to low molecular weight heparin fragments. Acta Chem Scand 26:3515–3523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Henderson WR, Kaliner M (1978) Immunologic and non-immunologic generation of superoxide from mast cells and basophils. J Clin Invest 61:187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Henderson WR, Kaliner M (1979) Mast cell granules peroxidase; location, secretion, and SRS-A inactivation. J Immunol 122:1322–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hibbs RG, Burch GE, Phillips JM (1960) Electronicmicroscopic observations on human mast cells. Am Heart J 60:121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Holgate ST, Lewis RA, Austen KF (1980) 3’,5’-cyelic adenosine monophosphate dependent protein kinase of the rat serosal mast cell and its immunologic activation. J Immunol 124:2093–2099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Holgate ST, Burns GB, Robinson C, Church MK (1984) Anaphylactic and calcium dependent generation of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), thromboxane B2 and other cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid by dispersed human lung cells and relationship to histamine release. J Immunol 133:2138–2144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hook M, Lindahl U, Hallen A, Backstrom G (1975) Biosynthesis of heparin:studies on the microsomal sulfation process. J Biol Chem 250:6065–6071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Horton MA, O’Brien HAW (1983) Characterization of human mast cells on long term culture. Blood 62:1251–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Howarth PH, Emanuel MB, Holgate ST (1984) Astemizole, a potent histamine H1-receptor antagonist:effects in allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, on antigen and histamine induced skin weal responses and relationship to serum levels. Br J Clin Pharmacol 18:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hughes PJ, Holgate ST, Roath S, Church MK (1983) The relationship between cyclic AMP changes and histamine release from basophil-enriched human leucocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 32:2557–2563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hugli TE (1981) The structural basis for anaphylatoxin in chemotactic functions of C3a and C5a. CRC Crit Rev Immunol 1:321–366Google Scholar
  76. Humphreys F, Shuster S (1987) The effect of nedecromil on weal reactions in human skin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 24:405–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Humphreys F, Krawe LB, Shuster S (1987) The effect of astemizole and indomethacin on weal and flare reactions to histamine, 48/80 and house dust mite antigen. Br J Dermatol 116:435Google Scholar
  78. Humphreys SH, Austen KF, Rapp HJ (1963) In vitro studies of reversed anaphylaxis with rat cells. Immunology 6:225–245Google Scholar
  79. Ihle JN, Keller J, Henderson L, Klein F, Palaszynski EW (1982) Procedures for the purification of interleukin 3 to homogeneity. J Immunol 129:2431–2436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ihle JN, Keller J, Oroszlan S, Henderson LE, Copeland TD, Fitch F, Prytsowsky MB, Goldwasser E, Schrader JW, Palaszynski E, Dy M, Lebel B (1983) Biological properties of homogenous interleukin 3:demonstration of WEHI-3 growth factor activity, mast cell growth factor activity, P-cell stimulating factor activity, colony-stimulating activity and histamine producing cell stimulating factor activity. J Immunol 131:282–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Irani AA, Schechter NM, Craig S, DeBlois G, Schwartz LB (1986) Two types of human mast cells that have distinct neutral protease compositions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4464–4468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ishizaka K, Ishizaka T (1967) Identification of gamma-E antibodies as a carrier of reaginic activity. J Immunol 99:1187–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ishizaka T,Ishizaka K (1984) Activation of mast cells for mediator release through IgE receptors. Prog Allergy 34:188–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ishizaka T, White JR (1986) Triggering mechanisms of mast cells and basophils. In:Reed CE (ed) Proceedings of the XII international congress of allergy and clinical immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 159–163Google Scholar
  85. Ishizaka T, Foreman JC, Sterk AR, Ishizaka K (1979) Induction of calcium flux across the rat mast cell membrane by bridging IgE receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5858–5862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ishizaka T, Hirata F, Ishizaka K, Axelrod J (1980) Stimulation of phospholipid methylation, Ca2+ influx, and histamine release by bridging of IgE receptors on rat mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:1903–1906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ishizaka T, Conrad DH, Schulman ES, Sterk AR, Ishizaka K (1983) Biochemical analysis of initial triggering events of IgE-mediated histamine release from human lung mast cells. J Immunol 130:2357–2362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ishizaka T, Dvorak AM, Conrad DH, Niebyl JR, Marquette JP, Ishizaka K (1985) Morphologic and immunologic characterization of human basophils developed in cultures of cord blood mononuclear cells. J Immunol 134:532–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Jacobson I, Lindahl U (1980) Biosynthesis of heparin:concerted action of late polymer-modification reactions. J Biol Chem 255:5094–5100Google Scholar
  90. Jacobson I, Hook M, Petterson I, Lindahl U, Larm O, Wiren E, Von Figura K (1979) Identification of N-sulphated disaccharide units in heparin-like polysaccharides. Biochem J 179:77–87Google Scholar
  91. Jilek F, Hormann H (1979) Fibronectin (cold insoluble globulin). VI. Influence of heparin and hyaluronic acid on the binding of native collagen. Hoppe Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem 360:597–603Google Scholar
  92. Kaliner M, Lemanske R (1984 a) Inflammatory response to mast cell granules. Fed Proc 43:2846–2851Google Scholar
  93. Kaliner M, Lemanske R (1984b) Mast cell-derived inflammatory factors and late-phase allergic reactions. In:Kay AB, Austen KF, Lichtenstein LM (eds) Asthma:physiology, immunopharmacology and treatment. Third international symposium. Academic, London, pp 229–244Google Scholar
  94. Katakami Y, Kaibuchi K, Sawamura M, Takai Y, Nishizuka Y (1984) Synergistic action of protein kinase C and calcium for histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 121:573–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Katayama Y, Ende N (1965) Esterase studies on dog mast cell tumors. Nature 205:190–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kawanami O, Ferrans VJ, Fulmer JD, Crystal RG (1985) Ultrastructure of pulmonary mast cells in patients with fibrotic lung disorders. Lab Invest 40:717–734Google Scholar
  97. Kay AB, Lee TH (1982) Neutrophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 70:317–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kennerly DA, Sullivan TJ, Parker CW (1979) Activation of phospholipid metabolism dur-ing mediator release from stimulated rat mast cells. J Immunol 122:152–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kingston WP, Greaves MW (1976) Factors affecting prostaglandin synthesis by rat microsomes. Prostaglandins 12:51–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kitamura Y et al. (1986a) Probable transdifferentiation between connective tissue and mucosal mast cells. In:Befus AD, Bienenstock J, Denburg JA (eds) Mast cell differentiation and heterogeneity. Raven, New York, pp 135–140Google Scholar
  101. Kitamura Y, Nakano T, Kanakura Y, Matsuda H (1986b) Factors influencing mast cell differentiation. In:Reed CE (ed) Proceedings of the XII international congress of allergy and clinical immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 154–158Google Scholar
  102. Koro O, Francis RM, Barr AK, Black AK, Numata T, Greaves MW (1986 a) Antigen-in- duced release of prostaglandin D2 from human skin in vivo (abstr). J Invest Dermatol 87:151Google Scholar
  103. Koro O, Dover JS, Francis DM, Kobza Black A, Kelly RW, Barr RM, Greaves MW (1986b) Release of prostaglandin D2 and histamine in a case of localized heat urticaria and effects of treatments. Br J Dermatol 115:721–728Google Scholar
  104. Krause L, Shuster S (1984)H1 receptor active histamine not sole cause of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Lancet 11:929Google Scholar
  105. Krause LB, Shuster S (1985) Minimal effect of complete Hx receptor blockade on urticarial pigmentosa. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 65:338–340Google Scholar
  106. Lagunoff D (1972) Contributions of electron microscopy to the study of mast cells. J Invest Dermatol 58:296–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lagunoff D, Chi EY, Wan H (1975) Effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin on rat peritoneal mast cells. Biochem Pharmacol 24:1573–1578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lagunoff D, Martin TW, Read G (1983) Agents that release histamine from mast cells. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 23:331–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Leitch AG, Drazen JM (1984) Pulmonary mechanical response to leukotriene administration in vivo. In:Kay AB, Austen KF, Lichenstein LM (eds) Asthma:physiology, immunopharmacology and treatment. Third international symposium. Academic, London, pp 85–99Google Scholar
  110. Levi-Schaffer F, Austen KF, Caulfield JP, Hein A, Bloes WF, Stevens RL (1985) Fibro-blasts maintain the phenotype and viability of the rat heparin-containing mast cell in vitro. J Immunol 135:3454–3462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lewis RA, Drazen JM, Corey EJ, Austen KF (1981) Structural and functional characteristics of the leukotriene components of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis. In:Piper PJ (ed) SRS A and leukotrienes. Wiley, Chichester, pp 101–117Google Scholar
  112. Lewis T (1927) The blood vessels of the human skin and their responses. Shaw, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. Lichtenstein LM, Schleimer RP, MacGlashan DW, Peters SP, Schulman ES, Proud D, Creticos PS, Naclerio RM, Kagey-Sobotka A (1984) In vitro and in vivo studies of mediator release from human mast cells. In:Kay AB, Austen KF, Lichtenstein LM (eds) Asthma:physiology, immunopharmacology and treatment. Third international symposium. Academic, London, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  114. Lonky SA, Marsh J, Wohl H (1978) Stimulation of human granulocyte elastase by platelet factor 4 and heparin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 85:1113–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lowman MA, Rees PH, Benyon RC, Church MK (1987) Human mast cell heterogeneity:histamine release from mast cells dispersed from skin, lung, adenoids, tonsils and intestinal mucosa in response to IgE-dependent and non-immunological stimuli. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:590–597Google Scholar
  116. Lucas A, Shuster S (1987) Cromolyn inhibition of protein kinase activity. Biochem Pharmacol 36:561–562Google Scholar
  117. MacGlashan DW, Schleimer RP, Peters SP, Schulman ES, Adams GK, Newball HH, Lichtenstein LM (1982) Generation of leukotrienes by purified human lung mast cells. J Clin Invest 70:747–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Maier M, Spragg J, Schwartz LB (1983) Inactivation of human high molecular weight kininogen by human mast cell tryptase. J Immunol 130:2352–2356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Marks RM, Roche WR, Czerniecki M, Penny R, Nelson DS (1986) Mast cell granules cause proliferation of human microvascular endothelial cells. Lab Invest 55:289–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Meier HL, Heck LW, Schulman ES, MacGlashan DW (1985) Purified human mast cells and basophils release elastase and cathepsin G by an IgE-mediated mechanism. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 77:179–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Metcalfe DD, Lewis RA, Silbert JE, Rosenberg RD, Wasserman SI, Austen KF (1979) Isolation and characterisation of heparin from human lung. J Clin Invest 4:1537–1543Google Scholar
  122. Metcalfe DD, Smith J A, Austen KF, Silbert JE (1980) Polydispersity of rat mast cell heparin:implications for proteoglycan assembly. J Biol Chem 255:11753–11758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Metcalfe DD, Kaliner M, Donlon MA (1981) The mast cell. CRC Crit Rev Immunol 1:23–74Google Scholar
  124. Michell RH (1982)Is phosphatidylinositol really out of the calcium gate. Nature 296:492–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Mikhail GR, Miller-Milinska A (1964) Mast cell population in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 43:249–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Miller HRP (1980) The structure, origin and function of mucosal mast cells:a brief review. Biol Cell 39:249–254Google Scholar
  127. Miller HRP, Woodbury RG, Huntley JF, Newlands GFJ (1983) Systemic release of mucosal mast cell protease in primed rats challenged with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Immunology 49:411–419Google Scholar
  128. Mongar JL, Schild HO (1958) The effect of calcium and pH on the anaphylactic reaction. J Physiol (Lond) 140:272–284Google Scholar
  129. Moore JP, Johannsson A, Hesketh TR, Smith GA, Metcalfe JC (1984) Calcium signals and phospholipid methylation in eukaryotic cells. Biochem J 221:675–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Nabel G, Galli SJ, Dvorak AM, Dvorak HF, Cantor H (1981) Inducer T-lymphocytes syn- thesise a factor that stimulates proliferation of cloned mast cells. Nature 291:332–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Nagao K, Yokoro K, Aaronson SA (1981) Continuous lines of basophil/mast cells derived from normal mouse bone marrow. Science 212:333–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Nakano T, Sonoda T, Hayashi C, Yamatodani A, Kanayama Y, Yamamura T, Asai H, Yonezawa T, Kitamura Y, Galli SJ (1985) Fate of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells after intracutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous transfer into genetically mast cell deficient W/Wv mice:evidence that cultured mast cells can give rise to both connective tissue type and mucosal mast cells. J Exp Med 162:1025–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. O’Driscoll BRC, Lee TH, Cromwell O, Kay AB (1983) Immunologic release of neutrophil chemotactic activity from human lung tissue. J Allergy Clin Immunol 72:695–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Oertel HL, Kaliner M (1981) The biologic activity of mast cell granules. III. Purification of inflammatory factors of anaphylaxis (IF-A) responsible for causing late-phase reactions. J Immunol 127:1398–1402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ohki S, Ogino N, Yamamoto K, Hayaishi O (1979) Prostaglandin hydroperoxidase as an integral part of prostaglandin synthetase from bovine vesicular gland microsomes. J Biol Chem 254:829–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Oikarinen A, Viinikka L, Rytsala H, Kiistla U, Ylikorkala O (1981) Prostacyclin, thromboxane and prostaglandin F in suction blister fluid of human skin:effect of systemic aspirin and glucocorticoid treatment. Life Sci 29:391–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Orr TSC (1975) Recent developments concerning the mast cell and the mode of action of disodium cromoglycate. Acta Allergol 12 (Suppl):13–29Google Scholar
  138. Orr TSC (1977) Fine structure of the mast cell with special reference to human cells. Scand J Respir Dis 98 (Suppl):1–7Google Scholar
  139. Pearce CA, Greaves MW, Plummer VM, Yamamoto S (1974) Effect of disodium cromoglycate on antigen evoked histamine release in human skin. Clin Exp Immunol 17:437–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Pearce FL (1982) Calcium and histamine secretion from mast cells. Prog Med Chem 19:59–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Pearce FL (1986) Functional differences between mast cells from different locations. In:Befus AD, Bienenstock J, Denburg JA (eds) Mast cell differentiation and heterogeneity. Raven, New York, pp 215–222Google Scholar
  142. Pessinger MA, Lepage P, Simard JP, Parker GH (1983) Mast cell numbers in incisional wounds in rat skin as a function of distance, time and treatment. Br J Dermatol 108:179–187Google Scholar
  143. Pillarisetti V, Rao S, Friedman MM, Atkins FM, Metcalfe DD (1983) Phagocytosis of mast cell granules by cultured fibroblasts. J Immunol 130:341–349Google Scholar
  144. Piotrowski W, Devoy MAB, Jordan CC, Foreman JC (1984) The substance P receptor on rat mast cells and in human skin. Agents Actions 14:420–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Piper PJ (1983) Pharmacology of leukotrienes. Br Med Bull 39:255–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Prausnitz C, Kusner H (1921) Studien über die Überempfmdlichkeit. Zentralbl Bakteriol 86:160–169Google Scholar
  147. Proud D, Lichtenstein LM (1984) Human lung mast cell kininogenase:apparent identity to tryptase (abstr). Fed Proc 43:1807Google Scholar
  148. Proud D, MacGlashan DW, Newball HH, Schulman ES, Lichtenstein LM (1985) IgE-mediated release of a kininogenase from purified human lung mast cells. Am Rev Respir Dis 132:405–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Razin E, Stevens RL, Akiyama F, Schmid K, Austen KF (1982) Culture from mouse bone marrow of a subclass of mast cells possessing a distinct chondroitin sulfate proteogly-can with glycosaminoglycans rich in N-acetylgalactosaminase-4,6-disulphate. J Biol Chem 257:7229–7236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Rees PH, Hillier K, Church MK (1987) The secretory characteristics of mast cells isolated from human intestinal mucosa and submucosa (to be published)Google Scholar
  151. Roberts LJ, Sweetman BJ (1985) Metabolic fate of endogenously synthesised prostaglandin D2 in a human female with mastocytosis. Prostaglandins 30:383–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Roberts LJ, Sweetman BJ, Lewis RA, Austen KF, Oates JA (1980) Increased production of prostaglandin D2 in patients with systemic mastocytosis. N Engl J Med 303:1400–1404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Robinson HC, Horner AA, Hook M, Ogren S, Lindahl U (1978) A proteoglycan form of heparin and its degradation to single chain molecules. J Biol Chem 253:6687–6693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Ruzicka T, Printz MP (1982) Arachidonic acid metabolism in guinea-pig skin. Biochim Biophys Acta 711:391–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Schechter NM, Fraki JE, Geesin JC, Lazarus GS (1983) Human skin chymotryptic proteinase. Isolation and relation to cathepsin G and rat mast cell protease. J Biol Chem 258:2973–2978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Schechter NM, Choi JK, Slavin DA, Deresienski DT, Sayama S, Dong G, Lavaker RM, Proud D, Lazarus GS (1986) Identification of a chymotrypsin-like proteinase from human mast cells. J Immunol 137:962–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Schulman ES, MacGlashan DW, Peters SP, Schleimer RP, Newball HH, Lichtenstein LM (1982) Human lung mast cells:purification and characterization. J Immunol 129:2662–2667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Schwartz LB (1984) Tryptase from human pulmonary mast cells. In:Kay AB, Austen KF, Lichtenstein LM (eds) Asthma:physiology, immunopharmacology and treatment. Third international symposium. Academic, London, pp 19–37Google Scholar
  159. Schwartz LB, Austen KF (1981) Acid hydrolases and other enzymes of rat and human mast cell secretory granules. In:Becker EL, Simon AS, Austen KF (eds) Biochemistry of the acute allergic reactions. Liss, New York, pp 103–121Google Scholar
  160. Schwartz LB, Austen KF (1984) Structure and function of the chemical mediators of mast cells. Prog Allergy 34:271–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Schwartz LB, Riedel C, Caulfield JP, Wasserman SI, Austen KF (1981 a) Cell association of complexes of chymase, heparin proteoglycan and protein after degranulation by rat mast cells. J Immunol 126:2071–2078Google Scholar
  162. Schwartz LB, Lewis RA, Austen KF (1981b) Tryptase from human pulmonary mast cells: purification and characterization. J Biol Chem 256:11939–11943Google Scholar
  163. Schwartz LB, Lewis RA, Seldin D, Austen KF (1981 c) Acid hydrolases and tryptase from secretory granules of dispersed lung mast cells. J Immunol 126:1290–1294Google Scholar
  164. Schwartz LB, Schratz JJ, Vik D, Fearon DT, Austen KF (1982) Cleavage of human C3 by human mast cell tryptase (abstr). Fed Proc 41:487Google Scholar
  165. Seldin DC, Adelman S, Austen KF, Stevens RL, Hein A, Caulfield JP, Woodbury RG (1985) Homology of the rat basophilia cell and the rat mucosal mast cell. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:3871–3875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Seppa HEJ, Jarvinen M (1978) Rat skin main neutral protease:purification and properties. J Invest Dermatol 70:84–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Silbert JE (1967) Biosynthesis of heparin. J Biol Chem 242:5146–5152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Snyder F (1985) Chemical and biochemical aspects of platelet activating factor:a novel class of acetylated ether-linked choline-phospholipids. Med Res Rev 5:107–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Solley GO, Gleich GJ, Jordan RE, Schroeter AL (1976) The late phase of the immediate wheal and flare skin reaction:its dependence on IgE antibodies. J Clin Invest 58:408–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Sondergaard J, Zaehariae H (1968) Epidermal histamine. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 233:323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Soter NA, Mihm MC, Dvorak HF, Austen KF (1978) Cutaneous necrotising veneolitis:a sequential analysis of the morphological alterations occurring after mast cell degranulation in a patient with a unique syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 32:46–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Spicer SS (1963) Histochemical properties of mucopolysaccharide and basic protein in mast cells. Ann NY Acad Sci USA 103:322–332Google Scholar
  173. Sredni B, Friedman MM, Bland CE, Metcalfe DD (1983) Ultrastructural, biochemical and functional characteristics of histamine-containing cells cloned from mouse bone marrow:tentative identification as mucosal mast cells. J Immunol 131:915–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Stevens RL, Austen KF (1982) Effect of p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xyloside on proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis in rat serosal mast cell cultures. J Biol Chem 257:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Stevens RL, Katz HR, Seldin DC, Austen KF (1986) Biochemical characteristics distinguish subclasses of mammalian mast cells. In:Befus AD, Bienenstock J, Denburg JA (eds) Mast cell differentiation and heterogeneity. Raven, New York, pp 183–203Google Scholar
  176. Strobel S, Miller HRP, Ferguson A (1981) Human intestinal mucosal mast cells:evaluation of fixation and staining techniques. J Clin Pathol 34:851–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Sullivan TJ (1981) Diacylglycerol metabolism and the release of mediators from mast cells. In:Becker EL, Simon AS, Austen KF (eds) Biochemistry of the acute allergic reactions. Liss, New York, pp 229–238Google Scholar
  178. Sullivan TJ, Parker KL, Kulczycki A, Parker CW (1976) Modulation of cyclic AMP in purified rat mast cells. III. Studies on the effects of concanavalin A and anti-IgE during histamine release. J Immunol 117:713–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Tharp MD, Thirlby R, Sullivan TJ (1984) Gastrin induces histamine release from human cutaneous mast cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol 74:159–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Theoharides TC, Bondy PK, Tsakalos ND, Askenase PW (1982) Differential release of serotonin and histamine from mast cells. Nature 297:229–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Ting S, Zweiman B, Lavker RM, Dunsky EH (1981) In vivo release of eosinophil chemoattractant activity in human allergic skin reactions. J Immunol 127:557–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Ting S, Zweiman B, Lavker RM (1983a) Terbutaline modulation of human allergic skin reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71:437–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Ting S, Zweiman B, Lavker RM (1983 b) Cromolyn does not modulate human allergic skin reactions in vivo. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71:12–17Google Scholar
  184. Uvnas B (1967) Mode of binding and release of histamine in mast cell granules of the rat. Fed Proc 26:219–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Vance DE, de Kruijff B (1980) The possible functional significance of phosphatidylethanolamine methylation. Nature 288:277–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Wells PD (1977) Nippostrongylus braziliensis:lung mast cell populations in repeatedly inoculated rats. Exp Parasitol 43:326–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Wiesner-Menzel L, Schulz B, Vakilzadeh F, Czarnetzki BM (1981) Electron microscopical evidence for a direct contact between nerve fibres and mast cells. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 61:465–469Google Scholar
  188. Windaus A, Vogt W (1907) Synthese des Imidazolylathylamins. Ber Dtsch Chem Ges 3:3691–3695Google Scholar
  189. Wintroub BU, Kaempfer CE, Schechter NM, Proud D (1986) Human lung mast cell chymotrypsin-like enzyme:identification and partial characterization. J Clin Invest 77:196–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Woodbury RG, Miller HRP (1982) Quantitative analysis of mucosal mast cell protease in the intestine of Nippostrongylus-injected rats. Immunology 46:487–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Woodbury RG, Gruzenski GM, Lagunoff D (1978) Immunofluorescent localization of a serine protease in rat small intestine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:2785–2789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Yurt RW, Austen KF (1977) Preparative purification of rat mast cell chymase. Characterization and interaction with granule components. J Exp Med 146:1405–1419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Yurt RW, Leid RW, Austen KF, Silbert JE (1977) Native heparin from rat peritoneal mast cells. J Biol Chem 252:518–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Zibho VA, Casebolt T, Marcelo CL, Voorhees JJ (1983) Enhancement of 5’-lipoxygenase activity in soluble preparations of human psoriatic plaque preparation. J Invest Dermatol 80:359Google Scholar
  195. Zimmerman TP, Schmitges CJ, Wolberg G, Deeprose RD, Duncan GS, Cuatrecasas P, Elion GB (1980) Modulation of cyclic AMP metabolism by S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-3-deazaadenosylhomocysteine in mouse lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5639–5643PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. K. Church
  • R. C. Benyon
  • L. S. Clegg
  • S. T. Holgate

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations