Advertisement

Proteolytic Enzymes in Relation to Skin Inflammation

  • G. Volden
  • V. K. Hopsu-Havu
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 87 / 1)

Abstract

Inflammation is a series of events which in part follow each other and in part are contemporary. The acute phase is followed by resolution or the healing phase. A variety of enzymes and their natural inhibitors are known to operate in the inflammatory process.

Keywords

Skin Inflammation Proteolytic Enzyme Neutral Proteinase Blister Fluid Porphyria Cutanea Tarda 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison AC (1969) Lysosomes. In:Bittar EE, Bittar N (eds) The biologic basis of medicine, vol 1. Academic, New York, pp 209–242Google Scholar
  2. Allison AC, Paton GR (1965) Chromosome damage in human diploid cells following activation of lysosomal enzymes. Nature 207:1170–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison AC et al. (1966) The role of lysosomes and of cell membranes in photosensitization. Nature 209:874–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison AC et al. (1968) An examination of the growth of cells in tissue culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 126:112–114Google Scholar
  5. Astrup T (1968) Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in tissue culture and tissue repair. Biochem Pharmacol [Suppl] 17:241–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baggiolini M et al. (1978) Subcellular localization of granulocyte enzymes. In:Havemann K, Janoff A (eds) Neutral proteases of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  7. Barrett AJ (1977) Cathepsin D and other carboxyl proteinases. In:Barrett AJ (ed) Proteinases in mammalian cells and tissues. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 209–248Google Scholar
  8. Bentley C et al. (1976) In vitro synthesis of factor B of the alternative pathway of complement activation by mouse peritoneal macrophages. Eur J Immunol 6:393–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bleumink E, Doeglas HMG (1977) Deflciences of protease inhibitors in patients with skin diseases. Dermatologica 154:305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bleumink E, Doeglas HMG (1980) Protease inhibitor deflciences in a patient with angioedema:results of family studies. Br J Dermatol 102:473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bosman HB (1969) Glycoprotein degradation. Glycosidases in fibroblasts transformed by oncogenic viruses. Exp Cell Res 54:217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bosman HB (1972) Elevated glycosidases and proteolytic enzymes in cells transformed by RNA tumor virus. Biochim Biophys Acta 264:339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bosman HB et al. (1974) Surface biochemical changes accompanying primary infection with Rous sarcoma virus. II. Proteolytic and glycosidase activity and sublethal autolysis. Exp Cell Res 83:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Braun-Falco O et al. (1977) Immunoelectronmicroscopical demonstration of in vivo bound complement C3 in psoriatic lesions. Arch Dermatol Res 260:57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burckhardt W (1941) Untersuchungen über die Photoaktivitat einiger Sulfanilamide. Dermatologica 83:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burger M (1970) Proteolytic enzymes initiating cell division and escape from contact inhibition of growth. Nature 227:170–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christman JK et al. (1977) Plasminogen activators. In:Barrett AJ (ed) Proteases in mammalian cells and tissues. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 91–149Google Scholar
  18. Cochrane CG et al. (1959) The role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the initiation and cessation of the Arthus vasculitis. J Exp Med 110:481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cormane RH et al. (1979) Immunologic implications of PUVA therapy in psoriasis vulgaris. Arch Dermatol Res 265:245–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davies P, Allison AC (1976) Secretion of macrophage enzymes in relation to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. In:Nelson DS (ed) Immunobiology of the macrophages. Academic, New York, p 427Google Scholar
  21. Desai ID et al. (1964) Peroxidative and radiation damage to isolated lysosomes. Biochem Biophys Acta 86:277–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dingle JT et al. (1973) Immunoinhibition of intracellular protein digestion in macrophages. J Exp Med 137:1124–1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doeglas HMG, Bleumink E (1974) Familial cold urticaria:clinical findings. Arch Dermatol 110:382–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Donaldson VH, Evans RR (1973) Biochemical abnormality in hereditary angioneurotic oedema:absence of serum inhibitor of C1 esterase. Am J Med 35:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eftekhari N et al. (1980) Protease inhibitor profiles in urticaria and angioedema. Br J Dermatol 103:33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fehr K et al. (1974) Digestion of autologous IgG by acid lysosomal protease (cathepsin D) and its role in immune complex formation and inflammation. Adv Clin Pharmacol 6:64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fine RM et al. (1979) Accumulation of cancer-related glycoprotein, EDCI, in psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 73:264–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fräki JE (1976) Human skin proteases. Separation and characterization of two acid proteases resembling cathepsin B1 and cathepsin D and of an inhibitor to cathepsin B1. Arch Dermatol Res 255:317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fräki JE, Hopsu-Havu VK (1972) Human skin proteases. Differential extraction of proteases and of endogenous protease inhibitors. Arch Dermatol Forsch 242:329–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fräki JE, Hopsu-Havu VK (1975) Human skin proteases. Separation and characterization of two alkaline proteases, one splitting trypsin and the other chymotrypsin substrates. Arch Dermatol Res 253:261–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fräki JE, Hopsu-Havu VK (1976) Human skin proteases. Fractionation of psoriasis scale proteases and separation of a plasminogen activator and a histone hydrolysing protease. Arch Dermatol Res 256:113–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fräki JE, Hopsu-Havu VK (1977) Inhibition of human skin proteinases by chloroquine, dapsone and sulfapyridine. Arch Dermatol Res 259:113–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fräki JE et al. (1978) Plasminogen activators of psoriatic scale extracts. Separation of two plasminogen activators by isoelectric focusing. Arch Dermatol Res 261:259–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fräki JE et al. (1979) Proteinase binding and enhancing factor in human skin. Arch Dermatol Res 264:185–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fritz H (1980) Proteinase inhibitors in severe inflammatory processes (septic shock and experimental endotoxaemia):biochemical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects. Ciba Found Symp 75:351–379Google Scholar
  36. Fruton JS (1946) On the proteolytic enzymes of animal tissues. V. Peptidases of skin, lung and serum. J Biol Chem 166:721–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gadek JE et al. (1980) Replacement of therapy in hereditary angioedema:successful treatment of acute episodes of angioedema with partly purified C1 inhibitor. N Engl J Med 302:542–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ginsburg I et al. (1977) The role played by leukocyte extracts and inflammatory exudates in the release of lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria:relation to tissue damage induced during infection. In:Willoughby DA, Giroud JP, Velo GP (eds) Per-spectives in inflammation. MTX Lancaster, England, pp 163–167Google Scholar
  39. Glenner GG, Cohen LA (1960) Histochemical demonstration of a species specific trypsin-like enzyme in mast cells. Nature 185:846–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glenner GG et al. (1962) Histochemical demonstration of a trypsin-like esterase activity in mast cells. J Histochem Cytochem 10:109–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goldstein IM (1975) Effect of steroids on lysosomes. Transplant Proc 7:21–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Goldstein IM, Weissmann G (1974) Generation of C5-derived lysosomal enzyme releasing activity (C5a) by lysates of leukocyte lysosomes. J Immunol 113:1583–1588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gordon S (1976) Macrophage neutral proteinases and chronic inflammation. Ann NY Acad Sci 278:176–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greenbaum LM (1979) Kininogenases in blood cells. In:Erdös ED (ed) Bradykinin, kallidin and kallikrein. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 91–102 (Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 25, supplement)Google Scholar
  45. Hällgren R, Venge P (1976) Cationic proteins of human granulocytes:enhancement of phagocytosis by staphylococcus protein A-IgG complexes. Inflammation 1:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hammarström S et al. (1975) Increased concentrations of non-esterifled arachidonic acid 12:-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2 in epidermis of psoriasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:5130–5134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hayashi H (1975) The intracellular neutral SH-dependent protease associated with inflammatory reactions. Int Rev Cytol 40:101–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hayashi H et al. (1975) The nature of a mediator of leukocyte chemotaxis in inflammation. Antibiot Chemother 19:296–332Google Scholar
  49. Hibino T et al. (1980) In vitro and in vivo inhibition of rat liver cathepsin L by epidermal proteinase inhibitor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 93:440–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hönigsmann H et al. (1974) Epidermal lysosomes and ultraviolet light. J Invest Dermatol 63:337–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hopsu-Havu VK, Ekfors TO (1969) Identification in the rat skin and subcutaneous granuloma of an enzyme liberating N-terminal glycyl-proline from peptides. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 235:301–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hopsu-Havu VK, Fräki JE (1980) Proteinases and their inhibitors in skin diseases. Int J Dermatol 20:159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hopsu-Havu VK, Glenner GG (1966) A new dipeptide naphthylamidase hydrolyzing glycyl-prolyl-beta-naphthylamide. Histochemie 7:197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hopsu-Havu VK, Jansén CT (1968) Biochemical demonstration of an aminopeptidase in rat skin specific for N-terminal basic amino acids (aminopeptidase B). Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 233:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hopsu-Havu VK et al. (1970) Partial purification and characterization of an acid dipeptide naphthylamidase (carboxytripeptidase) of the rat skin. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 236:282–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hopsu-Havu VK et al. (1977) Proteolytic enzymes in the skin. In:Barrett AJ (ed) Proteinases in mammalian cells and tissues. Elsevier, North-Holland, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 545–581Google Scholar
  57. Houck JC, Patel YM (1965) Proposed mode of action of corticosteroids on the connective tissue. Nature 206:158–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Houck JC et al. (1967) The effects of anti-inflammatory drugs upon the chemistry and enzymology of rat skin. Biochem Pharmacol 16:1099–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Houck JC et al. (1968) Induction of collagenolytic and proteolytic activities by anti-inflammatory drugs in the skin and fibroblast. Biochem Pharmacol 17:2081–2090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hugon J, Borgers M (1965) The ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in the crypt epithelium of the irradiated mouse duodenum. J Histochem Cytochem 13:526–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Izaki S et al. (1979) Fibrin deposition and clearance in chronic granulomatous inflammation:correlation with T-cell function and proteinase inhibitor activity in tissue. J Invest Dermatol 73:561–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jablonska S et al. (1979) Ist die Psoriasis eine autoimmune Erkrankung? Hautarzt 30:634–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Järvinen M (1976) Purification and properties of two protease inhibitors from rat skin inhibiting papain and other SH-protease. Acta Chem Scand [B] 30:933–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Järvinen M, Hopsu-Havu VK (1975) α-N-benzoylarginine-2-naphthyl-amide hydrolase (cathepsin B1?) from rat skin. II. Purification of the enzyme and demonstration of two inhibitors in the skin. Acta Chem Scand [B] 29:772–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Järvinen M et al. (1978) The low-molecular-weight SH-protease inhibitor in rat skin is epidermal. J Invest Dermatol 71:119–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Janoff A (1970) Mediators of tissue damage in leukocyte lysosomes. X. Further studies on human granulocyte elastase. Lab Invest 22:228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Janoff A (1972) Neutrophil proteases in inflammation. Annu Rev Med 23:177–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Janoff A, Zeligs JD (1968) Vascular injury and lysis of basement membrane in vitro by neutral proteinase of human leukocytes. Science 162:702–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Junnila SK et al. (1971) Elastase and trypsin inhibitors of human skin and serum. Partial purification and characterization. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 51:251–256Google Scholar
  70. Kass EH, Wolff SM (1973) Bacterial lipopolysaccharides, chemistry, biology and clinical significance of endotoxins. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  71. Kocmierska-Grodzka D, Goutier R (1971) Investigation on the catheptic activity of liver in irradiated rats. Strahlentherapie 142:345–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Koob TJ et al. (1974) Regulation of human skin collagenase activity by hydrocortisone and dexamethasone in organ culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 61:1083–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Koono M et al. (1968) Proteases associated with Arthus skin lesions:their purification and biological significance. Tohoku J Exp Med 94:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Krogh HK (1970) The occurrence of antibodies to stratum corneum in man. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 37:649–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kueppers F, Bearn AG (1966) A possible experimental approach to the association of hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and pulmonary emphysema. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 121:1207–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lazarus GS (1974) The role of neutral proteinase and cathepsin D in turpentine induced inflammation. J Invest Dermatol 62:367–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lazarus GS et al. (1968) Degradation of collagen by a human granulocyte collagenolytic system. J Clin Invest 47:2622–2629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lazarus GS et al. (1975) Lysosomes and the skin. J Invest Dermatol 65:259–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lazarus GS et al. (1977) Polymorphonuclear leukocytes:possible mechanism of accumulation in psoriasis. Science 198:1162–1163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lie SO, Schofleld B (1973) Inactivation of lysosomal functions in normal cultured human fibroblasts by chloroquine. Biochem Pharmacol 22:3109–3114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lin T-Y, Williams HR (1975) Inhibition of the local haemorrhagic Shwartzman reaction by an acid proteinase. Experientia 31 (2):209–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lycke AWJ et al. (1967) Effects of Cortisol released cutaneous protease upon the permeability of the micro-circulation. J Invest Dermatol 48:318–325Google Scholar
  83. Mathews KP et al. (1980) Familial carboxypeptidase N deficiency. Ann Intern Med 93:443–445Google Scholar
  84. McClelland DBL, Van Furth R (1976) In vitro synthesis of B1C/B1 globulin (the C3 component of complement) by tissues and leukocytes of mice. Immunology 31:855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mier PD, Van den Hurk JJMA (1975) Inhibition of lysosomal enzymes by dapsone. Br J Dermatol 93:471–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mier PD, Van den Hurk JJMA (1976 a) Acid hydrolases in psoriatic epidermis. Br J Dermatol 94:219–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mier PD, Van den Hurk JJMA ( 1976 b) Lysosomal hydrolases of the epidermis. 4. Overall profile in comparison with dermis and other tissues. Br J Dermatol 94:443–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Minta JO, Movat HZ (1979) The complement system and inflammation. In:Movat HZ (ed) Inflammatory reaction. Curr Top Pathol 68:135–178Google Scholar
  89. Miyamoto M, Terayama H (1973) Serum factors affecting cathepsin release from lysosomes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 64:617–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Movat HZ (1979 a) The kinin system and its relations to other systems. Curr Top Pathol 68:111–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Movat HZ (1979 b) The plasma kallikrein-kinin system and its interrelationship with other components of blood. In:Erdös EG (ed) Bradykinin, kallidin and kallikrein. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–89 (Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 25, Supplement)Google Scholar
  92. Murphy G et al. (1977) Collagenase is a component of the specific granules of human neutrophil leukocytes. Biochem J 162:195–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Neufahrt A, Henckel S (1974) Fraktionierte Zentrifugation und Gelfiltration zur Trennung von Proteinasen aus Psoriasisschuppen. Arch Dermatol Forsch 250:127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Odeberg H et al. (1975) Cationic proteins of human granulocytes. IV. Esterase activity. Lab Invest 32(1):86–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ohlsson K, Ohlsson I (1973) The neutral proteases of human granulocyte. Isolation and partial characterization of two granulocyte collagenases. Eur J Biochem 36:473–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ohyama T (1974) A neutral inflammatory protease associated with Arthus skin lesion in guinea pig. Tohoku J Exp Med 113:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Olson RL, Nordquist RE (1966) Ultramicroscopic localization of acid phosphatase in human epidermis. J Invest Dermatol 46:431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ossowski L et al. (1973) An enzymatic function associated with transformation of fibroblasts by oncogenic viruses. II. Mammalian fibroblast cultures transformed by DNA and RNA tumor viruses. J Exp Med 137:112–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Page RC et al. (1974) Participation of mononuclear phagocytes in chronic inflammatory diseases. J Reticuloendothel Soc 15:413–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Paris JE et al. (1969) Distribution and properties of lysosomal enzymes in untreated and in irradiated mouse mammary-gland carcinomas. JNCI 42:383–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Peavy DL et al. (1972) Selective effect of bacterial endotoxins on various subpopulations of lymphoreticular cells. J Infect Dis 128 (Suppl):83Google Scholar
  102. Postlethwaite AE et al. (1976) The chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to a lymphocyte-derived factor. J Exp Med 144:1188–1203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. René AA, Evans AS (1970) Correlation of radiation-induced ultrastructural changes in mouse hepatocytes with alterations in plasma concentration of protein-bound neutral hexoses. Radiat Res 44:224–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. René AA et al. (1971) Radiation-induced ultrastructural and biochemical changes in lysosomes. Lab Invest 25:230–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ruddy S et al. (1972) The complement system of man. I. N Engl J Med 287:489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ryan GB, Majno G (1977) Acute inflammation. Am J Pathol 86:185–276Google Scholar
  107. Ryan TJ et al. (1971) Epithelial-endothelial interaction in the control of inflammation through fibrinolysis. Br J Dermatol 84:501–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ryan WL, Cardin C (1967) Lysosomal stimulation and inhibition of the growth of cells in tissue cultures. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 126:112–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sasaki M et al. (1977) A new serum component which specifically inhibits thiol proteinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 76:917–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schmidt W, Havemann K (1974) Isolation of elastase-like and chymotrypsin-like neutral proteases from human granulocytes. Hoppe-Seylers Z Physiol Chem 355:1077–1082PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schnebli HP, Burger M (1972) Selective inhibition of growth of transformed cells by protease inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:3825–3827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schorlemmer HU, Allison AC (1976) Effects of activated complement components on enzyme secretion by macrophages. Immunology 31:781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Schorlemmer HU et al. (1976) Ability of activated complement components to induce lysosomal enzyme release from macrophages. Nature 261:48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schorlemmer HU et al. (1977) Interactions of macrophages and complement components in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. In:Willoughby DA, Giroud JP, Velo GP (eds) Perspectives in inflammation. MTX, Lancaster, England, pp 191–206Google Scholar
  115. Schulz KH (1974) Hereditäres Quicke-Ödem. Neuere Wege der Therapie. Hautarzt 25:12–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Schwartze G, Hanson H (1971) Zur proteolytischen Aktivität in Psoriasisschuppen. Dermatol Monatsschr 157:315–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Seltzer JL et al. (1978) A component of normal human serum which enhances the activity of vertebrate collagenases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 80:637–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Seppä HJ (1978) Rat skin main neutral protease:immunohistochemical localization. J Invest Dermatol 71:311–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Smolen JE, Weissmann G (1978) The granulocyte:metabolic properties and mechanisms of lysosomal enzyme release. In:Havemann K, Janoff A (eds) Neutral proteases of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munich, pp 56–76Google Scholar
  120. Starkey PM (1977) Elastase and cathepsin G:the serine proteinases of human neutraphil leucocytes and spleen. In:Barrett AJ (ed) Proteinases in mammalian cells and tissues. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 57–89Google Scholar
  121. Starkey PM, Barrett AJ (1973) Human cathepsin Bt. Inhibition by α2-macroglobulin and other serum proteins. Biochem J 131:823–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Starkey PM, Barrett AJ (1976 a) Human lysosomal elastase. Catalytic and immunological properties. Biochem J 155:265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Starkey PM, Barrett AJ (1976 b) Human cathepsin G. Catalytic and immunological properties. Biochem J 155:273–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Steigleder GK, Blomayer U (1964) Zur Biochemie der krankhaften Verhoraung, im besonderen bei Psoriasis. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 218:461–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Stetson CA Jr (1951) Similarities in the mechanisms determining the Arthus and Shwartzman phenomenon. J Exp Med 94:347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stricklin GP et al. (1977) Human skin collagenase:isolation of precursor and active forms from both fibroblast and organ cultures. Biochemistry 16:1607–1615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stüttgen G, Schilling T (1959) On the influenceability of proteolysis of human skin by prednisolone, kallikrein inactivator and roentgen rays. Z Gesamte Exp Med 132:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stüttgen G, Würdemann I (1959) Zur Darstellung der kateptischen Endopeptidase in der normalen menschlichen Haut und bei Dermatosen. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 208:192–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tagami H, Ofuji S (1977) Characterization of a leukotactic factor derived from psoriatic scale. Br J Dermatol 97:509–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Thomas CA et al. (1977) Cellular serine proteinase induced chemotaxis by complement activation. Nature 269:521–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Thomson AW et al. (1978) Effects of the antiprotease Transylol on peripheral blood leukocytes. Experientia 34:528–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thorne KJ et al. (1976) Lysis and killing of bacteria by lysosomal proteinases. Infect Immun 14:555–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Tokaji G (1971) The chemical pathology of thermal injury, with special reference to burns SH-dependent protease and its inhibitor. Kumamoto Med J 24:68–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Toki N, Yamura T (1978) Plasma-kinin-forming enzyme in human skin. I. Extraction and column chromatographic of plasma-kinin-forming enzyme and its inhibitor. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 58 (5):395–399Google Scholar
  135. Unkeless JC et al. (1973) An enzymatic function associated with transformation of fibroblasts by oncogenic virus. I. Chick embryo fibroblast cultures transformed by avian RNA tumor viruses. J Exp Med 137:85–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Unkeless JC et al. (1974) Fibrinolysis associated with oncogenic transformation. Partial purification and characterization of the factor, a plasminogen activator. J Biol Chem 249:4295–4305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Vassalli JD et al. (1976) Macrophage plasminogen activator:modulation of enzyme production by anti-inflammatory steroids, mitotic inhibitors and cyclic nucleotides. Cell 8:271–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Venge P, Olsson I (1975) Cationic proteins of human granulocytes. VI. Effects on the complement system and mediation of chemotactic activity. J Immunol 115:1505–1508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Vischer TL et al. (1976) In vitro stimulation of lymphocytes by neutral proteinases from human polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules. J Exp Med 144:863–872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Volden G (1978) Acid hydrolases in blister fluid. 4. Influence of ultraviolet radiation. Br J Dermatol 99:53–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Volden G, Thune PO ( 1979 a) Acid hydrolases in blister fluid. 5. Influence of ultraviolet radiation in patients with polymorphic light eruption. Br J Dermatol 100:277–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Volden G, Thune PO ( 1979 b) Acid hydrolases in blister fluid. 6. Photocontact and contact allergic skin reactions. Br J Dermatol 100:283–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Volden G et al. (1980) Release of intracellular enzymes from cutaneous cells after non-necrotizing damage by ultraviolet light. Arch Dermatol Res 268:225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wahl LM et al. (1974) Collagenase production by endotoxin-activated macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:3598–3601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wakulchik SD et al. (1980) Photolysis of protoporphyrin-treated human fibroblasts in vitro:studies on the mechanism. J Lab Clin Med 96:158–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Ward PA, Cochrane CG (1965) Bound complement and immunologic injury of blood vessels. J Exp Med 121:215–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ward PA, Hill JH (1970) C5 chemotactic fragments produced by an enzyme in lysosomal granules of neutrophils. J Immunol 104:535–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Ward PA et al. (1972) Leukotactic factors elaborated by virus-infected tissue. J Exp Med 135:1095–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Ward PA et al. (1978) The modulation by neutral proteases and other factors from neutrophils. In:Havemann K, Janoff A (eds) Neutral proteases of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munich, pp 276–286Google Scholar
  150. Weissmann G, Dingle J (1961) Release of lysosomal protease by ultraviolet irradiation and inhibition by hydrocortisone. Exp Cell Res 25:207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Weissmann G, Fell HB (1962) The effect of hydrocortisone of the response of fetal rat skin in culture to ultraviolet irradiation. J Exp Med 116:365–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Werb Z, Gordon S (1975 a) Secretion of a specific collagenase by stimulated macrophages. Z Exp Med 142:346–360Google Scholar
  153. Werb Z, Gordon S (1975 b) Elastase secretion by stimulated macrophages. Characterization and regulation. J Exp Med 142:361–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wibo M, Poole B (1974) Protein degradation in cultured cells. II. The uptake of chloroquine by rat fibroblasts and the inhibition of cellular protein degradation and cathepsin B1 J Cell Biol 63:430–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wilkinson PC (1974) Chemotaxis and inflammation. Churchill Livingstone, London Willis I, Kligman AM (1968) The mechanism of photoallergie contact dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 51:378Google Scholar
  156. Willoughby DA (1978) Inflammation. Endeavour 2:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Yu RJ et al. (1972) Inhibition of keratinases by α2-macroglobulin. Experientia 28:886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Volden
  • V. K. Hopsu-Havu

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations