Advertisement

Neutrophil and Eosinophil Chemotaxis and Cutaneous Inflammatory Reactions

  • A. J. Wardlaw
  • A. B. Kay
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 87 / 1)

Abstract

Neutrophil and eosinophil leucocytes are derived principally from the bone marrow although colony forming cells circulate in the peripheral blood. Together with basophils they form the granulocyte series of white cells. Mature granulocytes are incapable of division (“end cells”) and have a life span of days once they have entered the circulation. Granulocytes exhibit random and directional locomotion (chemokinesis and chemotaxis), possess varying degrees of phagocytic activity, and actively secrete lysosomal enzymes and other biological agents following contact with an appropriate stimulus. Many of these properties are shared by mononuclear phagocytes but the neutrophil, and to a lesser degree the eosinophil, is more rapidly mobilised to the sites of inflammation.

Keywords

Allergy Clin Immunol Chemotactic Factor Chemotactic Activity Glyceryl Ether Cold Urticaria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alper CA, Abramson N, Johnston RB, Jandl JH, Rosen FS (1970) Increased susceptibility to infection associated with abnormalities of complement-mediated functions and of the third component of complement (C3). Engl J Med 282:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altman GC, Kirchner H (1972) The production of a monocyte chemotactic factor by agammaglobulinaemic chicken spleen cells. J Immunol 109:1149–1151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson DC, Schmalsteig FC, Finegold MJ et al. (1985) The severe and moderate phenotypes of heritable Mac-1, LFA-1 deficiency: their quantitative definition and relation to leukocyte dysfunction and clinical features. J Infect Dis 152:668–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Archer CB, Page CP, Morley J, MacDonald DM (1985) Accumulation of inflammatory cells in response to intracutaneous platelet activating factor PAF-acether in man. Br J Dermatol 112:285–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyden S (1962) The chemotactic effect of mixtures of antibody and antigen on polymorphonuclear leucocytes. J Exp Med 115:453–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryant DH, Kay AB (1977) Cutaneous accumulation in atopic and non-atopic individuals. The effect of an ECF-A tetrapeptide and histamine. Clin Allergy 7:211–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buchanan DR, Cromwell O, Kay AB (1986) Neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) in acute severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77:183 (abstract)Google Scholar
  8. Buckley RH (1979) Hyperimmunoglobulin E, undue susceptibility to infection, and depressed immunologic function. In: Hodes H, Kagen BM (eds) Pediatric immunology. Science Medicine Publishing, New York, pp 219–247Google Scholar
  9. Camp RDR, Coutts AA, Greaves MW, Kay AB, Walport MJ (1983) Responses of human skin to intradermal injection of leukotrienes C4, D4, and B4. Br J Pharmacol 80: 497–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Camp RD, Mallet AI, Cunningham FM et al. (1985) The role of chemoattractant lipoxygenase production in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 113 [Suppl 28]:98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarke RAF, Collins JI, Kaplan AP (1975) The selective eosinophil chemotactic activity of histamine. J Exp Med 142:1462–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dahinden CA, Clancy RM, Hugli TE (1984) Specificity of leukotriene B4 and structure-function relationships for chemotaxis of human neutrophils. J Immunol 133:1477–1482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dahl MV, Cates KL, Quie PG (1981) Deficiency of phagocyte function and related disorders. In: Safai B, Good RA (eds) Immunodermatology. Plenum, New York, p 425Google Scholar
  14. Dale MM, Foreman JC (1984) Textbook of immunopharmacology. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Falk W, Goodwin RH Jr, Leonard EJ (1980) A 48-well microchemotaxis assembly for rapid and accurate measurement of leucocyte migration. J Immunol Methods 33:239–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ford-Hutchinson AW, Bray MA, Doig MV, Shipley ME, Smith MJH (1980) Leukotriene B4, a potent chemotactic and aggregating substance released from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Nature 286:264–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gerard C, Hugli TE (1981) C5a: a mediator of chemotaxis and cellular release reactions. In: Becker EL, Simon AS, Austen KF (eds) Biochemistry of the acute allergic reactions. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 147–160Google Scholar
  18. Goetzl EJ (1980) Mediators of immediate hyper-sensitivity derived from arachidonic acid. N Engl J Med 303:822–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goetzl EJ, Austen KF (1975) Purification and synthesis of eosinophilotactic tetrapeptides of human lung tissue: identification as eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:4123–4127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grandel KE, Farr RS, Wanderer AA, Eisenstadt TC, Wasserman SI (1986) Association of platelet-activating factor with primary acquired cold urticaria. N Engl J Med 313:405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hanahan DJ, Demopoulos CA, Leihr J, Pinckard RN (1980) Identification of platelet-activating factor isolated from rabbit basophils of acetyl, glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine. J Biol Chem 255:5514–5516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Jacobs JC, Miller ME (1972) Fatal familial Leiner’s disease: a deficiency of the opsonic activity of serum complement. Pediatrics 49:225–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kay AB (1980) The role of the eosinophil in physiological and pathological processes. In: Thompson RA (ed) Recent advances in clinical immunology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, pp 113–143Google Scholar
  24. Kay AB (1985) Eosinophils as effector cells in immunity and hypersensitivity disorders. Clin Exp Immunol 62:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kay AB, Austen KF (1971) The IgE-mediated release of an eosinophil leucocyte chemotactic factor from the human lung. J Immunol 107:899–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kay AB, Kaplan AP (1975) Chemotaxis and haemostasis. Br J Haematol 31:417–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Klebanoff SJ, Clark RA (1978) Chemotaxis. In: The neutrophil: function and clinical disorders. North-Holland, Amsterdam, Chap 3Google Scholar
  28. Kreisle RA, Parker CW, Griffin GL, Senior RM, Stenson UF (1985) Studies of leukotriene B4-specific binding and function in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Absence of a chemotactic response. J Immunol 134:3356–3363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lane TA, Lambkin GE (1984) A reassessment of the energy requirements for neutrophil migration, adenosine triphosphate depletion extraction chemotaxis. Blood 64:986–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lawton JWM, Darg C, Pepper D, Kay AB (1977) Human transfer factor prepared by dialysis, ultrafiltration and gel chromatography: biological activity in local transfer of skin sensitivity. J Immunol Methods 16:119–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee TH, Nagy L, Nagakura T, Walport MJ, Kay AB (1982) Identification and partial characterization of an exercise-induced neutrophil chemotactic factor in bronchial asthma. J Clin Invest 69:889–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lewis RA, Austen KF (1984) The biologically active leukotrienes. Biosynthesis, metabolism, receptors, functions and pharmacology. J Clin Invest 73:889–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maestrelli P, Tsai J-J, Kay AB (1987) Human lymphocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic activities. J Allergy Clin Immunol 79:160 (abstract)Google Scholar
  34. Miller ME, Oski FA, Harris MB (1971) Lazy leucocyte syndrome. A new disorder of neutrophil function. Lancet 1:665–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ming WJI, Bersani L, Mantovani A (1987) Tumour necrosis factor is chemotactic for monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Immunol 138:1469–1474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Movat HZ, Rett LC, Burrowes CE, Johnston MG (1984) The in vivo effect of leukotriene B4 on polymorphonuclear leucocytes and the microcirculation: comparison with activated complement (C5a-des-Arg) and enhancement with prostaglandin E2. Am J Pathol 115:233–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Norris DA, Lipman SH, Wertin WL (1979) Human monocyte chemotaxis: a quantitative in vivo technique. J Invest Dermatol 72:81–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Driscoll BRC, Lee TH, Cromwell O, Kay AB (1983) Immunologic release of neutrophil chemotactic activity from human lung tissue. J Allergy Clin Immunol 72:695–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Perez HD, Chenoweth DE, Goldstein IM (1986) Attachment of human C5a-des-Arg to its cochemotaxin is required for maximum expression of chemotactic activity. J Clin Invest 78:1589–1595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rosenfeld SI, Kelly ME, Leddy JP (1976) Hereditary deficiency of the fifth component of complement in man. I. Clinical, immunochemical, and family studies. J Clin Invest 57:1626–1634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schiffman E, Corcoran FA, Wahl SM (1975) N-Formylmethionine peptides as chemoattractants for leucocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:1059–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shaw RJ, Walsh GM, Cromwell O, Moqbel R, Spry CJF, Kay AB (1985) Activated human eosinophils generate SRS-A leukotrienes following IgG-dependent stimulation. Nature 316:150–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Snyderman R, Goetzl EJ (1981) Molecular and cellular mechanisms of leukocyte chemo-taxis. Science 213:830–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Soter NA, Wasserman SI, Pathak MA, Parrish JA, Austen KF (1979) Solar urticaria: release of mast cell mediators into the circulation after experimental challenge. J Invest Dermatol 72:282 (abstract)Google Scholar
  45. Soter NA, Wasserman SI, Austen KF, McFadden ER (1980) Release of mast cell mediators and alterations in lung function in patients with cholinergic urticaria. N Engl J Med 302:604–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Spry CJF (1985) Synthesis and secretion of eosinophil granule substances. Immunol Today 6:332–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stossel TP, Hartwig JH, Yin HL, Southwick FS, Zaner KS (1984) The motor of leucocytes. Fed Proc 42:2760–2763Google Scholar
  48. Vadas MA, David JR, Butterworth A, Pisani NT, Singok TA (1979) A new method for the purification of human eosinophils and neutrophils and a comparison of the ability of these cells to damage schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. J Immunol 122:1228–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Wadee AA, Sher R (1980) The effects of a soluble factor released by sensitized mononu-clear cells incubated with S. haematobium ova on eosinophil migration. Immunology 41: 989–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Wardlaw AJ, Moqbel R, Cromwell O, Kay AB (1986) Platelet-activating factor. A potent chemotactic and chemokinetic factor for human eosinophils. J Clin Invest 78:1701–1706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wasserman SI, Soter NA, Center DM, Austen KF (1977) Cold urticaria. Recognition and characterisation of a neutrophil chemotactic factor which appears in serum during experimental challenge. J Clin Invest 60:189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wells GC, Smith NP (1979) Eosinophilic cellulitis. Br J Dermatol 100:101–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wilkinson PC (1982) Chemotaxis and inflammation, 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  54. Wilkinson PC (1985) Random locomotion, chemotaxis and chemokinesis. Immunol Today 6:273–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilkinson PC (1986) Locomotion and chemotaxis of leucocytes. In: Weir (ed) Handbook of experimental immunology, vol 2. Cellular immunology. Blackwell, Oxford, Chap 51Google Scholar
  56. Wright DG (1982) The neutrophil as a secretory organ of host defense. In: Gallin JI, Fauci AS (eds) Advances in host defense mechanisms, vol 1. Raven, New York, pp 75–110Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Wardlaw
  • A. B. Kay

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations