Histamine, Histamine Antagonists and Cromones

  • J. C. Foreman
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 87 / 1)


Histamine was discovered independently from two sources in the first decade of this century by KUTSCHER (1910) and by WINDAUS and VOGT (1907). WINDAUS and VOGT prepared histamine synthetically by the decarboxylation of histidine whereas Kutscher identified histamine as a base in ergot. Histamine is so called because the Greek word HISTOS means tissue and BARGER and DALE (1910) isolated the amine from guinea-pig intestinal tissue. Following the discovery of histamine in mammalian tissue, there was an extensive study of its biological effects by DALE and LAIDLAW (1910,1911), who noted the parallel between the actions of histamine in animals and the response of an animal to a foreign protein, normally inert, but to which the animal had been sensitised by prior injection. DALE and LAIDLAW (1919) also demonstrated that it was possible to produce shock in animals by the injection of histamine. DALE (1913) and SCHULTZ (1910) both independently demonstrated an anaphylactic reaction in isolated smooth muscle, following the original description in whole animals of the anaphylactic reaction to foreign protein by PORTIER and RICHET (1902).


Mast Cell Histamine Release Allergy Clin Immunol Histamine Content Histidine Decarboxylase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson R, Glover A, Rabson AR (1977) The in vitro effects of histamine and metiamide on neutrophil motility and their relationship to intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels. J Immunol 118:1690–1696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Assem ESK, Mongar JL (1970) Inhibition of allergic reactions in man and other species by cromoglyeate. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 38:68–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Awouters F, Niemegeers CJE, Van den Berk J et al. (1977) Oxatomide, a new orally active drug which inhibits both the release and the effects of allergic mediators. Experientia 33:1657–1659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bain WA (1949) The quantitative comparison of histamine antagonists in man. Proc R Soc Med 42:615–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker CH (1979) Nonhemodynamic effects of histamine on gracilis muscle capillary per-meability. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 211:672–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barger G, Dale HH (1910) Chemical structure and sympathomimetic action of amines. J Physiol (Lond) 41:19–59Google Scholar
  7. Bartosch R, Feldberg W, Nagel E (1932) Das Freiwerden eines histaminähnlichen Stoffes bei der Anaphylaxie des Meerschweinchens. Pflügers Arch 230:129–153Google Scholar
  8. Bayliss WM (1901) On the origin from the spinal cord of the vasodilator fibres of the hind limb, and on the nature of these fibres. J Physiol (Lond) 26:173–209Google Scholar
  9. Bierman CW, Assem ESK, Mongar JL (1979) Inhibition and stimulation of histamine release by oxatomide. Int J Immunopharmacol 1:227–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyd JF, Smith AN (1959) The effect of histamine and histamine releasing agent (compound 48/80) on wound healing. J Pathol Bacterid 78:379–388Google Scholar
  11. Casale TB, Bowman S, Kaliner M (1984) Induction of human cutaneous mast cell degranulation by opiates and endogenous opioid peptides: evidence for opiate and nonopiate receptor paticipation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73:775–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Church MK, Gradidge CF (1980) Inhibition of histamine release from human lung in vitro by antihistamines and related drugs. Br J Pharmacol 69:663–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Commens CA, Greaves MW (1978) Cimetidine in chronic ideopathic urticaria: a randomised double blind study. Br J Dermatol 99:675–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook J, Shuster S (1979) The measurement and mechanism of histamine wealing. J Invest Dermatol 72:283Google Scholar
  15. Cook J, Shuster S (1983) The effect of an H1 and H2 receptor antagonist on the demo-graphic response. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 63:260–262Google Scholar
  16. Cook TJ, MacQueen DM, Wittig HJ, Thornby JI, Lantos RL, Virtue CM (1973) Degree and duration of skin test suppression and side effects with antihistamine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 51:71–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cowen T, Trigg P, Eady RAJ (1979) Distribution of mast cells in human dermis: development of a mapping technique. Br J Dermatol 100: 635–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dale HH (1913) The anaphylactic reaction of plain muscle in the guinea pig. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 4:167–223Google Scholar
  19. Dale HH, Laidlaw PP (1910) The physiological action of β-imidazolylethylamine. J Physiol (Lond) 41:318–344Google Scholar
  20. Dale HH, Laidlaw PP (1911) Further observations on the action of β-imidazolylethamine. J Physiol (Lond) 43:182–195Google Scholar
  21. Dale HH, Laidlaw PP (1919) Histamine shock. J Physiol (Lond) 52:355–390Google Scholar
  22. Damas J, Lecomte J (1983) Mast cell heterogeneity in the rat. Experientia 39:1311–1312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Davies MG, Greaves MW (1980) Sensory responses of human skin to synthetic histamine analogues and histamine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 9:461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Demis DJ, Brown DD (1961) Histidine metabolism in urticaria pigmentosa. J Invest Dermatol 36:253–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dietzel W, Massion WH, Hinshaw LB (1969) The mechanism of histamine-induced transcapillary fluid movement. Pflügers Arch 309:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dixon JB (1959) Histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and serum globulins in the foetal and neonatal rat. J Physiol (Lond) 147:144–152Google Scholar
  27. Dorsch W, Ring J, Reimann HJ, Geiger R (1982) Mediator studies in skin blister fluid from patients with dual skin reactions after intradermal antigen injection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 70:236–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Duner H, Pernow B (1952) Cutaneous reactions produced by local administration of acetylcholine, acetyl-β-methylcholine (methacholine), piperidine and histamine. Acta Physiol Scand 25:38–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Duner H, Pernow B, Sterky G (1960) The histamine concentration in the blood on exposure to cold and heat. A study in the healthy subject and patients with cold allergy. Allergy 15:417–424Google Scholar
  30. Dunsky EH, Zweiman B (1978) The direct demonstration of histamine release in allergic reactions in the skin using a skin chamber technique. J Allergy Clin Immunol 62:127–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Eady RAJ, Cowen T, Marshall TF, Plummer V, Greaves MW (1979) Mast cell population density, blood vessel density and histamine content in normal human skin. Br J Dermatol 100:623–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. El-Ackad TM, Brody MJ (1975) Evidence of non-mast cell histamine in the vascular wall. Blood Vessels 12:181–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ennerbäck L (1966 a) Mast cells in the gastrointestinal tract. 1. Effect of fixation. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand [B] 66:289–302Google Scholar
  34. Ennerbäck L (1966 b) Mast cells in rat gastrointestinal mucosa. 2. Dye-binding and metachromatic properties. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand [B] 66:303–312Google Scholar
  35. Ennerbäck L (1966 c) Mast cells in the gastrointestinal tract. 3. Reactivity towards compound 48/80. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 66:313–322Google Scholar
  36. Fan TPD, Lewis GP (1982) Blood flow, histamine content and histadine decarboxylase activity in rat skin grafts and their modification by cyclosporin A. Br J Pharmacol 76:491–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Feldberg W, Loeser AA (1954) Histamine content of human skin in different clinical disorders. J Physiol (Lond) 126:286–292Google Scholar
  38. Feldberg W, Miles AA (1953) Regional variations of increased permeability of skin capillaries induced by a histamine liberator and their relation to the histamine content of the skin. J Physiol (Lond) 120:203–213Google Scholar
  39. Feldberg W, Paton WDM (1951) Release of histamine from skin and muscle in the cat by opium alkaloids and other histamine liberators. J Physiol (Lond) 114:490–509Google Scholar
  40. Feldberg W, Schachter M (1952) Histamine release by horse serum from skin of the sensitized dog and non-sensitized cat. J Physiol (Lond) 118:124–134Google Scholar
  41. Feldberg W, Talesnik J (1953) Reduction of tissue histamine by compound 48/80. J Physiol (Lond) 120:550–568Google Scholar
  42. Fermont DC, Haggie SJ, Wyllie JH (1976) Histamine receptors in human skin. Br J Surg 63:160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fitzpatrick DW, Fisher H (1982) Histamine synthesis, imidazole dipeptides and wound healing. Surgery 91:430–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Foreman JC, Jordan CC (1984) Neurogenic inflammation. Trends Pharmacol Sci 5:116–119Google Scholar
  45. Foreman JC et al (1983) Structure-activity relationships for some substance P-related peptides that cause weal and flare reactions in human skin. J Physiol (Lond) 335: 449–465Google Scholar
  46. Francis D, Greaves MW (1979) Histamine-N-methyltransferase of human skin: evaluation of its role in the regulation of histamine-mediated reactions. J Invest Dermatol 72:282–283Google Scholar
  47. Francis D, Greaves MW, Yamamoto S (1977) Enzymatic histamine degradation by human skin. Br J Pharmacol 60:583–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Francis DM, Thompson MF, Greaves MW (1980) The kinetic properties and reaction mechanism of histamine methyltransferase from human skin. Biochem J 187:819–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Galant SP, Bullock J, Wong D, Maibach HI (1973) The inhibitory effect of antiallergy drugs on allergic and histamine induced weal and flare response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 51:11–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Garland LG (1973) Effect of cromoglycate on anaphylactic histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Br J Pharmacol 49:128–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gatti S, Coutts A, Francis D, Greaves MW (1980) Oxatomide: in vitro assessment of antagonistic activity, and effects on histamine release and enzymatic histamine degradation in skin. Br J Dermatol 103:671–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Graham BH, Lioy F (1973) Histaminergic vasodilation in the hind limb of the dog. Pflgers Arch 342:307–318Google Scholar
  53. Graham HT, Lowry OH, Wahl N, Preibat MIT (1955) Mast cells as sources of skin histamine. J Exp Med 102:307–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Graham P, Schild HO (1967) Histamine formation in the tuberculin reaction of the rat. Immunology 12:727–727Google Scholar
  55. Granerus G, Olafsson JH, Roupe G (1983) Studies on histamine metabolism in mastocytosis. J Invest Dermatol 80:410–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Granroth T, Nilzen A (1948) On the histaminolytic activity of skin extracts. Acta Physiol Scand 15:188–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Greaves MW (1971) Histamine excretion and demographism in urticaria pigmentosa before and after administration of a specific histidine decarboxylase inhibitor. Br J Dermatol 85:467–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Greaves MW, Shuster S (1967) Responses of skin blood vessels to bradykinin, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. J Physiol (Lond) 193:255–267Google Scholar
  59. Greaves MW, Søndergaard T (1970 a) A new pharmacological finding in human allergic contact eczema. Arch Dermatol 101:659–661Google Scholar
  60. Greaves MW, Søndergaard T (1970 b) Urticaria pigmentosa and factitious urticaria: direct evidence for release of histamine and other smooth muscle contracting agents in dermographic skin. Arch Dermatol 101:418–425Google Scholar
  61. Greenwood B (1985) The histology of mast cells. In: Engstrom I, Lindholm NB (eds) Current views on bronchial asthma 1. Fisons, Stockholm, pp. 143–149Google Scholar
  62. Håkanson R, Owman CH, Sjöberg N-O, Sporrong B (1969) Direct histochemical demonstration of histamine in cutaneous mast cells: urticaria pigmentosa on keloids. Experimentia 25:854–855Google Scholar
  63. Halprin KM, Taylor JR, Comerford M (1984) Control of epidermal cell proliferation in vitro. Br J Dermatol 111 (Suppl 27):13–26Google Scholar
  64. Harris KE (1927) Observations upon a histamine-like substance in skin extracts. Heart 14:161–176Google Scholar
  65. Harvey RP, Schocket AL (1980) The effect of H1 and H2 blockade on cutaneous histamine response in man. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65:136–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hawk JLM, Eady RAJ, Challoner AVJ, Kozba Black A, Keahey TM, Greaves MW (1980) Elevated blood histamine levels and mast cell degranulation in solar urticaria. Br J Clin Pharmacol 9:183–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hawk JLM, Kozba Black A, Jaenicke KF et al. (1983) Increased concentrations of arachidonic acid, prostaglandins E, D and 6-oxo-F histamine in human skin following UVA irradiation. J Invest Dermatol 80:496–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Heavey DJ, Ind PW, Miyatake A, Dollery CT (1983) Local histamine release in man following intradermal antigen challenge. Br J Clin Pharmacol 106:214Google Scholar
  69. Heavey DJ, Fuller RW, Barnes PJ, Ind PW, Brown MJ, Dollery CJ (1984) Release of histamine by ntradermal injection of substance P in man. Proceedings 9th International Congress Pharmacol. London, July 1983, p 1067Google Scholar
  70. Helander HF, Bloom GD (1974) Quantitative analysis of mast cell structure. J Microsc 100:315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hellstrom B, Holmgren HJ (1950) Numerical distribution of mast cells in human skin and heart. Acta Anat (Basel) 10:82–107Google Scholar
  72. Herxheimer A, Schachter M (1959) Weal and flare in human skin produced by histamine and other substances. Nature 183:1510–1511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Horner FA, Winkelmann RH (1968) Histamine release produced in human skin by compound 48/80. Ann Allergy 26:107–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Humphreys F, Shuster S (1987) The effect of nedocromil on weal reactions in human skin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 24:405–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Humphreys F et al. (1983) The effect of astemizole and indomethacin on weal and flare reactions to histamine 48/80 and house dust mite antigen. Br J Dermatol 116:435Google Scholar
  76. Ind PW, Miyatake A, Heavey DJ, Dollery CT (1984) Local histamine release after immunological and non-immunological mast cell degradation in vivo. Agents Actions 14:417–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. James MP, Kennedy AR, Eady RAJ (1981) A microscopic study of inflammatory reactions in human skin induced by histamine and compound 48/80. J Invest Dermatol 78:406–413Google Scholar
  78. Johnson HH (1956) Variations in histamine levels in guinea pig skin related to skin region; age (or weight); and time after death of the animal. J Invest Dermatol 27:159–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Johnson HH (1957) Histamine levels in human skin. Arch Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 76:726–730Google Scholar
  80. Johnson M, Kahlson G (1967) Experiments on the inhibition of histamine formation in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 30:274–282Google Scholar
  81. Jorizzo JL, Coutts AA, Eady RAJ, Greaves MW (1983) Vascular responses of human skin to injection of substance P and mechanism of action. Eur J Pharmacol 87:67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Juan H (1981) Dependence of histamine-evoked nociception on prostaglandin release. Agents Actions 11:706–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Juhlin L (1967) Localization and content of histamine in normal and diseased skin. Acta Dermatol Venereol 47:383–391Google Scholar
  84. Kahlson G (1960) A place for histamine in normal physiology. Lancet 1:67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kahlson G, Nilsson K, Rosengren E, Zederfeldt B (1960 a) Wound healing as dependent on rate of histamine formation. Lancet 11:230–234Google Scholar
  86. Kahlson G, Rosengren E, White T (1960 b) The formation of histamine in the rat foetus. J Physiol (Lond) 151:131–138Google Scholar
  87. Kahlson G, Rosengren E, Svensson SC (1962) Inhibition of histamine formation in vivo. Nature 194:876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kahlson G, Rosengren E, Thunberg R (1963) Observations on the inhibition of histamine formation. J Physiol (Lond) 169:467–486Google Scholar
  89. Kaplan AP, Gray L, Shaff RE, Horakova Z, Beaven MA (1975) In vivo studies of mediator release in cold urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol 55:394–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Katz G (1942) Histamine release in the allergic skin reaction. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 49:272–277Google Scholar
  91. Kaur S, Greaves MW, Eftekhari N (1981) Factitious urticaria (dermographism): treatment by cimetidine and chlorpheniramine in a randomised double-blind study. Br J Dermatol 104:185–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kobza-Black, Greaves MW, Hensby CN, Plummer NA (1976) A new method for obtaining human skin inflammatory exudate for pharmacological analysis. Br J Pharmacol 58:317Google Scholar
  93. Kobza-Black A, Greaves MW, Hensby CN, Plummer NA, Eady RAJ (1977) A new method for recovery of exudates from normal and inflamed human skin. Clin Exp Dermatol 2:209–216Google Scholar
  94. Kobza Black A, Keahey TM, Eady RAJ, Greaves MW (1981) Dissociation of histamine release and clinical improvement following treatment of acquired cold urticaria by prednisone. Br J Clin Pharmacol 12:327–331Google Scholar
  95. Krause L, Shuster S (1984 a) H1 receptor active histamine not sole cause of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Lancet 11:929–930Google Scholar
  96. Krause L, Shuster S (1984 b) The effect of terfenadine on dermographic wealing. Br J Dermatol 110:73–80Google Scholar
  97. Krause L, Shuster S (1985 a) Minimal effect of complete H1 receptor blockade in urticarial pigmentosa. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 65:338–340Google Scholar
  98. Krause L, Shuster S (1985 b) A comparison of astemizole and chlorpheniramine in dermographism urticaria. Br J Dermatol 112:447–453Google Scholar
  99. Krause L, Shuster S (1985 c) Enhanced weal and flare response to histamine in chronic idiopathic urticaria. Br J Clin Pharmacol 20:486–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kutscher F von (1910) Die physiologische Wirkung einer Secalbase und des Imidazolyäthylamins. Zentralbl Physiol 24:163–165Google Scholar
  101. Lafferty K, De Trafford JC, Roberts VC, Cotten LT (1983) On the nature of Raynaud’s phenomenon: the role of histamine. Lancet 11:313–315Google Scholar
  102. Last MR, Loew ER (1947) Effect of antihistamine drugs in increased capillary permeability following intradermal injection of histamine, horse serum and other agents in rabbits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 89:81–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lemanske RF, Barr L, Guthman DA, Kaliner M (1983) The biologic activity of mast cell granules. V. The effects of antihistamine treatment on rat cutaneous early- and late- phase allergic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71:94–99Google Scholar
  104. Levine RJ (1966) Histamine synthesis in man: inhibition by 4-bromo-3-hydroxybenzyloxyamine. Science 154:1017–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lewis T (1927) The blood vessels of the human skin and their responses. Shaw, LondonGoogle Scholar
  106. Lewis T, Grant RT (1924) Vascular reactions of the skin to injury. Heart 11:209–265Google Scholar
  107. Maeyama K, Watanabe T, Taguchi Y, Yamatodani A, Wada H (1982) Effect of αfluoromethylhistidine, a suicide inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase on histamine levels in mouse tissues. Biochem Pharmacol 31:2367–2370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Majno G, Palade GE (1961) Studies on inflammation. I. The effect of histamine and serotonin on vascular permeability: an electron microscope study. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 11:571–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Majno G, Palade GE, Schoefl GI (1961) Studies on inflammation. II. The site of action of histamine and serotonin along the vascular tree: a topographical study. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 11:607–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Marks R, Greaves MW (1977) Vascular reactions to histamine and compound 48/80 in human skin: suppression by a histamine H2-receptor blocking agent. Br J Clin Pharmacol 4:367–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Marks R, Dykes PJ, Tan CY (1982) Histamine and epidermal proliferation. Br J Dermatol 107:15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Matthews CNA, Boss JM, Warin RP, Storari F (1979) The effect of H1 and H2s histamine antagonists on symptomatic dermographism. Br J Dermatol 101:57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Michel B, Russell TH, Winkelmann RK, Gleich GJ (1970) Release of kinins from site of wheal-and-flare allergic skin reactions. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 39:616–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Miles AA, Miles EM (1952) Vascular reactions to histamine, histamine liberator and leukotaxine in the skin of guinea-pigs. J Physiol (Lond) 118:228–257Google Scholar
  115. Misch KJ, Greaves MW, Kobza-Black A (1983) Histamine and the skin. Br J Dermatol 109 (Suppl 25):10–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mongar JL, Schild HO (1952) A comparison of the effects of anaphylactic shock and of chemical histamine releasers. J Physiol (Lond) 118:461–478Google Scholar
  117. Moore TC, Schayer RW (1969) Histidine decarboxylase activity of autografted and allografted rat skin. Transplantation 7:99–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Nathan RA, Segall N, Schocket AL (1981) A comparison of the actions of H1 and H2 antihistamines on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction and cutaneous wheal response in arthritic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67:171–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Norby K (1983) Intradermal mast cell secretion causing cutaneous mitogenesis. Virchows Arch [B] 42:263–269Google Scholar
  120. Owen DAA, Pipkin MA, Woodward DF (1984) Studies on cutaneous vascular permeability in the rat: increases caused by histamine and histamine-like agents. Agents Actions 14:40–42Google Scholar
  121. Pearce CA, Greaves MW, Plummer VM, Yamamoto S (1974) Effect of disodium cromoglycate on antigen-induced histamine release from human skin. Clin Exp Immunol 17:437–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Pearce FL (1983) Mast cell heterogeneity. Trends Pharmacol Sci 4:165–167Google Scholar
  123. Phillips MJ, Meyrick TRM, Moodley I, Davies RJ (1983) A comparison of the in vivo effects of ketotifen, clemastine, chlorpheniramine and sodium cromoglycate on histamine and allergen induced wheal in human skin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 15:277–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Piotrowski W, Foreman JC (1985) Some effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in human skin and on histamine release. Br J Dermatol 114:37–46Google Scholar
  125. Portier P, Richet C (1902) Bull Soc Biol 170Google Scholar
  126. Powell JR, Brody MJ (1976) Participation of H1 and H2-histamine receptors in physiological vasodilator responses. Am J Physiol 231:1002–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Regal JF, Hardy TM, Casey FB, Chakrin LW (1983) C5a-induced histamine release. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 72:362–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Riley JF, West GB (1953) The presence of histamine in tissue mast cells. J Physiol (Lond) 120:528–537Google Scholar
  129. Riley JF, West GB (1956) Skin histamine. Its location in the tissue mast cells. Arch Dermatol 74:471–78Google Scholar
  130. Robertson I, Greaves MW (1978) Responses of human skin blood vessels to synthetic histamine analogues. Br J Clin Pharmacol 5:319–322Google Scholar
  131. Robinson-White A, Bevan MA (1982) Presence of histamine and histamine-metabolising enzyme in rat and guinea pig microvascular endothelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 223:440–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Rose B (1941) Studies on blood histamine in cases of allergy. J Allergy 12:327Google Scholar
  133. Rosenthal SR (1977) Histamine as the chemical mediator for cutaneous pain. J Invest Dermatol 69:98–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Sagi-Eisenberg R, Foreman JC, Shelly R (1985) Histamine release induced by histone and phorbol ester from rat peritoneal mast cells. Eur J Pharmacol 113:11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Schayer RW (1956 a) Formation and binding of histamine by free mast cell of rat peritoneal fluid. Am J Physiol 108:199–202Google Scholar
  136. Schayer RW (1956 b) Formation and binding of histamine by rat tissues in vitro. Am J Physiol 187:63–65Google Scholar
  137. Schayer RW (1957) Histidine decarboxylase of rat stomach and other mammalian tissues. Am J Physiol 189:533–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Schayer RW (1960) Relationship of induced histidine decarboxylase activity and histamine synthesis to shock from stress and from endotoxin. Am J Physiol 198:1187–1192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Schayer RW (1962) Evidence that induced histamine is an intrinsic regulator of the micro circulatory system. Am J Physiol 202:66–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Schayer RW (1963) Induced synthesis of histamine, microcirculatory regulation and the mechanism of action of the adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Prog Allergy 7:187–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Schayer RW, Cooper JAD (1956) Metabolism of 14C histamine in man. J Appl Physiol 9:481–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Schultz WM (1910) Physiological studies in anaphylaxis. 1. The reaction of smooth muscle of the guinea pig sensitized with horse serum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1:549–567Google Scholar
  143. Søndergaard J, Glick D (1971) Quantitative histochemistry of histamine and histidine de-carboxylase activity in the normal human skin. J Invest Dermatol 56:231–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Søndergaard J, Glick D (1972) Histidine decarboxylase activity in human allergic contact dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 59:247–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Soter NA, Wasserman SI, Austin FF (1976) Cold urticaria: release into the circulation of histamine and eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis during cold challenge. N Engl J Med 294:687–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Spector WG, Willoughby DA (1963) The antagonism of substances that increase vascular permeability in the rat. J Pathol 86:487–496Google Scholar
  147. Taguchi Y, Tsuyama K, Watanabe T, Wada H, Kitamura Y (1979) Increase in histidine decarboxylase activity in skin of genetically mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice after application of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate: evidence for the presence of histamine-producing cells without basophilic granules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6837–6841Google Scholar
  148. Tharp MD, Suvunrungsi RT, Sullivan TJ (1983) IgE-mediated release of histamine from human cutaneous mast cells. J Immunol 130:1896–1901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Thompson MF, Isaacs JL, Greaves MW (1981) Histamine penetration of human epidermal cells. J Invest Dermatol 76:421Google Scholar
  150. Ting S, Dunsky EH, Lavker R, Zweiman B (1980) Patterns of mast cell alterations and in vivo mediator release in human allergic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 66:417–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ting S, Zweiman B, Lavker RM (1983 a) Cromoglycate does not modulate human allergic skin reactions in vivo. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71:12–17Google Scholar
  152. Ting S, Zweiman B, Lavker RM, Dunsky EH (1983 b) Effect of cimetidine on exogenous histamine inhibition of histamine release in vivo. Allergy 38:11–17Google Scholar
  153. Wanderer AA, St Pierre JP, Ellis EF (1977) Primary acquired urticaria: a double-blind comparative study of treatment with cyproheptadine, chlorpheniramine and placebo. Arch Dermatol 113:1375–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Windaus A, Vogt W (1907) Synthese des Imidazolylathylamins. Ber Dtsch Chem Ges 40:3691–3695Google Scholar
  155. Winkelmann RK (1966) Technique of dermal perfusion. J Invest Dermatol 46:220–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Yamamoto S, Francis D, Greaves MW (1976 a) Enzymic histamine metabolism in guinea pig skin and its role in immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Clin Exp Immunol 26:583–589Google Scholar
  157. Yamamoto S, Francis D, Greaves MW (1976 b) In vitro anaphylaxis in guinea pig skin: amplification by burimamide. J Invest Dermatol 67:696–699Google Scholar
  158. Yamatodani A, Maeyama K, Watanabe K, Wada T, Kitamura Y (1982) Tissue distribution of histamine in mutant mouse deficient in mast cells. Biochem Pharmacol 31:305–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Zachariae H (1964) Histamine in human skin. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 44:219–222Google Scholar
  160. Zachariae H, Brodthagen H, Sondergaard J (1969) Brocresine, a histidine decarboxylase inhibitor in chronic urticaria. J Invest Dermatol 53:341–343PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Foreman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations