Fjords

  • J. M. Skei
  • J. Molvaer

Abstract

Fjords are found in high latitude coastlines as partly landlocked areas that overlie deep basins. According to Holtedahl (1975), a typical fjord is a relatively long and narrow, often curved or branched embayment with more or less steep sides and a considerable depth. The water depth is often greater than that on the adjacent continental shelf. As a class, fjords are deepest of all estuaries.

Keywords

Phosphorus Phytoplankton Sedimentation Stratification Turbidity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Carstens T (1970) Turbulent diffusion and entrainment in two-layer flow. Proc Am Soc Civil Eng WW 1:97–104.Google Scholar
  2. Gade HG, Edwards A (1980) Deep water renewals in fjords. In: Freeland HJ, Farmer DM, Levings CD (eds) Fjord Oceanography. Plenum, New York, pp 453–489.Google Scholar
  3. Hay AE (1982) The effects of submarine channels of mine tailings disposal in Rupert Inlet, B.C. In: Ellis DU (ed) Marine Tailings Disposal. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp 139–181.Google Scholar
  4. Holtedahl H (1975) The geology of the Hardangerfjord, west Norway. Nor Geol Unders Bull 36 (363):1–87.Google Scholar
  5. Magnusson J (1985) Overvåking av forurensningssituasjonen i Indre Oslofjord 1984, (in Norwegian). Norwegian Institute for Water Research Oslo, 58 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Molvaer J (1980) Deep water renewals in the Frierfjord. In: Freeland HJ, Farmer DM, Levings CD (eds) Fjord Oceanography. Plenum, New York, pp 531–537.Google Scholar
  7. Rosenberg R (1985) Eutrophication — the future marine coastal nuisance? Mar Pollut Bull 16:227–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rygg B, Skei JM (1984) Correlation between pollutant load and the diversity of marine softbottom fauna communities. In: Proc of the Int Workshop in Biol Testing of Effluents and Related Receiving Waters. OECD/USEPA/Environ Con, pp 153-183.Google Scholar
  9. Saelen OH (1967) Some features of the hydrography of Norwegian fjords. In: LauffGH (ed) Estuaries. AAAS, Washington DC, pp 63–70.Google Scholar
  10. Skei JM (1981) Dispersal and retention of pollutants in Norwegian fjords. Rapp P V Reun Cons Int Explor Mer 181:78–86.Google Scholar
  11. Svendsen H (1980) Exchange processes above sill level between fjords and coastal water. In: Freeland HJ, Farmer DM, Levings CD (eds) Fjord Oceanography. Plenum, New York, pp 355–361.Google Scholar
  12. Svendsen J (1981) Wind-induced variations of circulation and water level in coupled fjord-coast systems. In: Saetre R, Mork M (eds) The Norwegian Coastal Current. University of Bergen, Bergen, pp 229–262.Google Scholar
  13. Syvitski JPM, Burrell DC, Skei JM (1987) Fjords: Processes and Products. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 379 p.Google Scholar
  14. Wolff EJ (1983) Estuarine benthos. In: Ketchum BH (ed) Ecosystems of the world 26. Estuaries and enclosed seas. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 151–182.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Skei
  • J. Molvaer
    • 1
  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Water ResearchOslo 3Norway

Personalised recommendations