Impact of Sewage Sludge

  • T. ap Rheinallt

Abstract

In the United Kingdom, disposal of sewage sludge to the sea is almost entirely by dumping from ships into estuarine and coastal waters. Only very small quantities are discharged by pipeline. In other countries bordering the North Sea, sludge disposal is almost exclusively to land, although some countries, such as the Federal Republic of Germany, have practised disposal to the North Sea in the past (Collinge and Bruce 1981). The present chapter, therefore, is mainly concerned with the impact of disposal from ships in the marine environment, and impact is considered to be measured largely in terms of biological effects.

Keywords

Biomass Zinc Chlorophyll Mercury Sludge 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. ap Rheinallt
    • 1
  1. 1.Medmenham LaboratoryWRc EnvironmentMarlow, BucksUK

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