Advertisement

Impact of Pollution on the Wadden Sea

  • W. J. Wolff

Abstract

In 1978 a multi-authored volume on the pollution of the Wadden Sea was published (Essink and Wolff 1978). Since then our knowledge has increased considerably, but basically the situation is still the same. A large number of contaminants have been demonstrated to occur in the Wadden Sea, but only for a small number has an impact on organisms or ecosystems been demonstrated. This chapter will focus on the latter cases for which sufficient scientific proof is available. A few cases in which grave suspicions exist will be mentioned as well.

Keywords

Organic Waste Harbor Seal Elbe Estuary Increase Nutrient Level Sandwich Tern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Becker PH, Erdelen M (1987) Die Bestandsentwicklung von Brutvögeln der deutschen Noordseeküste 1950–1979. JOrn 128:1–32.Google Scholar
  2. Bennekom AJ van, Gieskes WWC, Tijssen SB (1975) Eutrophication of Dutch coastal waters. Proc R Soc Lond B 189:359–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergman M (1982) Gedrag, bestrijding en biologische effecten van olie in estuariene gebieden. I. Literatuuroverzicht. RIN-rapport 18:420.Google Scholar
  4. Bergman M (1983) Gedrag, bestrijding en biologische effecten van olie in estuariene gebieden. II Olie in de Waddenzee. RIN-rapport 22:97.Google Scholar
  5. Bernem KH van (1976) Beobachtungen zur Einwirkung von Rohölen auf ausgewählte Wattenorganismen in mesohalinen Bereichen des Elbe-Aestuars. Diplom-Arbeit Univ Hamburg Fachbereich Biol, 143 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Beukema JJ, Cadée, GC (1986) Zoobenthos responses to eutrophication of the Dutch Wadden Sea. Ophelia 26:55–64.Google Scholar
  7. Boer MH de (1984) Reproduction decline of harbour seals: PCBs in the food and their effect on mink. Ann Rep Res Inst Nat Management 1983:77–86.Google Scholar
  8. Cadée GC (1984) Has input of organic matter into the western part of the Dutch Wadden Sea increased during the last decades? Neth Inst Sea Res Publ Ser 10:71–82.Google Scholar
  9. Cadée GC, Hegeman J (1979) Phytoplankton primary production, chlorophyll and composition in an inlet of the western Wadden Sea (Marsdiep). Neth J Sea Res 13:224–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colijn F (1983) Primary production in the Ems-Dollard estuary. Thesis Univ Groningen, 123 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Conrad B (1976) Die Belastung der freilebenden Vogelwelt der Bundesrepublik Deutschland mit chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen und PCB und deren mögliche Auswirkungen. Thesis, Köln, 90 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Dittmer, JD (1982) Untersuchungen über Schwermetallkonzentrationen in eulitoralen Sedimenten und Organismen des Jadegebietes. Jahresber Forsch stelle Insel Küstenschutz 32:69–98.Google Scholar
  13. Drescher HE (1978) Hautkrankheiten beim Seehund, Phoca vitulina Linné 1758, in der Nordsee. Säugetierk Mitt 26:50–59.Google Scholar
  14. Drescher HE, Harms U, Huschenbeth E (1977) Organochlorines and heavy metals in the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) from the German North Sea coast. Mar Biol 41:99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duinker JC, Hillebrand MTJ (1979) Behaviour of PCB, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, dieldrin, endrin and p, p’-DDD in the Rhine-Meuse estuary and the adjacent coastal area. Neth J Sea Res 13:256–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duinker JC, Koeman JH (1978) Summary report on the distribution and effects of toxic pollutants (metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons) in the Wadden Sea. In: Essink K, Wolff WJ (eds) Pollution of the Wadden Sea area. Balkema Rotterdam, pp 45-54.Google Scholar
  17. Duinker JC, Hillebrand MTJ, Boon JP (1983) Organochlorines in benthic invertebrates and sediments from the Dutch Wadden Sea: identification of individual PCB components. Neth J Sea Res 17:19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duinker JC, Boon JP, Hillebrand MTJ (1984) Organochlorines in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Neth Inst Sea Res Publ Ser 10:211–228.Google Scholar
  19. Essink K (1978a) Inventory of the quantities of waste discharged into the Wadden Sea from terrestrial sources. In: Essink K, Wolff WJ (eds) Pollution of the Wadden Sea area. Balkema Rotterdam, pp 25-36.Google Scholar
  20. Essink K (1978b) The effects of pollution by organic waste on macro-fauna in the eastern Dutch Wadden Sea. Neth Inst Sea Res Publ Ser 1:135.Google Scholar
  21. Essink K (1978c) Sources of thermal pollution. In: Essink K, Wolff WJ (eds) Pollution of the Wadden Sea area. Balkema Rotterdam, pp 36-38.Google Scholar
  22. Essink K (1980) Mercury pollution in the Ems estuary. Helgol Wiss Meeresunters 33:111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Essink K (1984) The discharge of organic waste into the Wadden Sea — local effects. Neth Inst Sea Res Publ Ser 10:165–177.Google Scholar
  24. Essink K (1985) Monitoring of mercury pollution in Dutch coastal waters by means of the teleostean fish Zoarces viviparus. Neth J Sea Res 19:177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Essink K, Beukema JJ (1986) Long-term changes in tidal flat zoobenthos as indicators of stress by organic pollution. Hydrobiologia 142:209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Essink K, Wolff WJ (1978) Pollution of the Wadden Sea area. Balkema Rotterdam, 61 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Goede AA (1985) Mercury, selenium, arsenic and zinc in waders from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Environ Pollut Ser A 37:287–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goede AA, Voogt P de (1985) Lead and cadmium in waders from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Environ Pollut Ser A37:287–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goethe F (1961) Deutscher Olpestbericht 1953–1961. Internat Rat Vogelschutz Deutsche Sektion Ber 1:1–12.Google Scholar
  30. Goethe F (1978) Oil pollution affecting birds along the German North Sea coast. In: Essink K, Wolff WJ (eds) Pollution of the Wadden Sea area. Balkema Rotterdam, pp 58-59.Google Scholar
  31. Groot AJ de (1963) Mangaantoestand van Nederlandse en Duitse Holocene Sedimenten in verband met slibtransport en bodemgenese. Versl. Landbouwk Onderz Wageningen 69.7:1–164.Google Scholar
  32. Grotjahn M, Michaelis M (1985) Das Benthos der Wesermündung im Einleitungsbereich säure-und eisenhaltiger Abwässer-Vergleich 1968 und 1980. Jahresber 1984 Forschstelle Küste, Norderney 36:113–140.Google Scholar
  33. Gundlach ER, Hayes MO (1978) Vulnerability of coastal environments to oil spill impacts. Mar Techn Soc J 12:18–27.Google Scholar
  34. Hartwig E, Reineking B, Schrey E, Vauk-Hentzelt E (1985) Auswirkungen der Noordsee-Vermüllung auf Seevögel, Robben und Fische. Seevögel Sonderb 6:57–62.Google Scholar
  35. Helder W (1974) The cycle of dissolved inorganic nitrogen compounds in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Neth J Sea Res 8:154–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Henriksen K, Jensen A, Rasmussen MB (1984) aspects of nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization and recycling in the northern part of the Danish Wadden Sea. Neth Inst Sea Res Publ Ser 10:51–69.Google Scholar
  37. Joensen AH (1972) Oil pollution and sea birds in Denmark 1935–1968. Dan Rev Game Biol 6, 8:1–24.Google Scholar
  38. Joensen AH (1978) The Danish Wadden Sea. In: Essink K, Wolff WJ (eds) Pollution of the Wadden Sea area. Balkema Rotterdam, pp 59-60.Google Scholar
  39. Jonge VN de, Postma H (1974) Phosphorus compounds in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Neth J Sea Res 8:139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koeman JH (1971) Het voorkomen en de toxicologische betekenis van enkele chloorkoolwaterstoff aan de nederlandse kust in de periode van 1965 tot 1970. Thesis Univ Utrecht, 136 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Koeman JH, Genderen H van (1972) Tissue levels in animals and effects caused by chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, chlorinated biphenyls and mercury in the marine environment along the Netherlands coast. In: Marine Pollution and Sea Life Fishing News (Books), Survey, pp 1-8.Google Scholar
  42. Koeman JH, Oskamp AAG, Veen J, Brouwer E, Rooth J, Zwart P, Broek E van de, Genderen H van (1967) Insecticides as a factor in the mortality of the Sandwich tern. A preliminary communication. Med Rijksfac Landbouwwet, Gent 32:841–8Google Scholar
  43. Koeman JH, Canton JH, Woudstra A, Peeters WHM, Goeij JJM de, Zeegers C, Haaften JL van (1971) Kwik in het nederlandse kustmilieu. TNO-nieuws 26:402–409.Google Scholar
  44. Koeman JH, Peeters WHM, Smit CJ, Tjioe PS, Goeij JJM de (1972) Persistent chemicals in marine mammals. TNO-nieuws 27:570–578.Google Scholar
  45. Koeman JH, Velzen-Blad HCW van, Vries R de, Vos JG (1973) Effects of PCB and DDE in cormorants and evaluation of PCB residues from an experimental study. J Reprod Fert Suppl 19:353–364.Google Scholar
  46. Kuiper J, Wilde PAWJ de, Wolff WJ (1984) Oil pollution experiment (OPEX). I. Fate of an oil mousse and effects on macrofauna in a model ecosystem representing a Wadden Sea tidal mud flat. In: Persoone G, Jaspers E, Claus C (eds). State Univ, Gent, Ecotoxicological testing for the marine environment. 2:331-359.Google Scholar
  47. Luten JB, Bouquet W, Burggraaf MM, Rauchbaar AB, Rus J (1986) Trace metals in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Wadden Sea, coastal North Sea and the estuaries of Ems, Western and Eastern Scheldt. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 36:770–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nassauer G (1981) Untersuchungen zur Müllbelastung von Stränden der deutschen Nordseeküste. Seevögel 3:53–57.Google Scholar
  49. Postma H, Rommets J (1970) Primary production in the Wadden Sea. Neth J Sea Res 4:470–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reijnders PJH (1980) Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in harbour seals from the Wadden Sea and their possible effects on reproduction. Neth J Sea Res 14:30–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reijnders PJH (1982) On the ecology of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Wadden Sea: population dynamics, residue levels and management. Veter Quart 4:36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Reijnders PJH (1986) Reproductive failure in common seals feeding on fish from polluted coastal waters. Nature (Lond) 324:456–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reise K (1984) Indirect effects of sewage on a sandy tidal flat in the Wadden Sea. Neth Inst Sea Res Publ Ser 10:159–164.Google Scholar
  54. Rooth J (1980) Sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis). In: Smit CJ, Wolff WJ (eds) Birds of the Wadden Sea. Balkema Rotterdam, pp 250-258.Google Scholar
  55. Roskam (1966) Kopervergiftiging in zee. Water, bodem, lucht 56:19–23.Google Scholar
  56. Swennen C (1972) Chlorinated hydrocarbons attacked the Eider population in the Netherlands. TNO-nieuws 27:556–560.Google Scholar
  57. Swennen C (1978) The Dutch Wadden Sea. In: Essink K, Wolff WJ (eds) Pollution of the Wadden Sea area. Balkema Rotterdam, pp 56-58.Google Scholar
  58. Swennen C (1982) De vogels langs onze kust. In: Wadden, duinen, delta. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp 78–100.Google Scholar
  59. Swennen C, Spaans AL (1970) De sterfte van zeevogels door olie in Februari 1969 in het Waddengebied. Vogeljaar 18:233–245.Google Scholar
  60. Tijssen SB, Bennekom AJ van (1976) Lage zuurstofgehaltes in het water op het Balgzand. H2O 9:28–31.Google Scholar
  61. Verwey J (1975) The cetaceans Phocaena phocaena and Tursiops truncatus in the Marsdiep area (Dutch Wadden Sea) in the years 1931–1973, I+ II. Ned Inst Onderz Zee Publ Versl 17a + b:153.Google Scholar
  62. Verwey J, Wolff WJ (1981) The common or harbour porpoise (Phocaena phocaena). In: Reijnders PJH, Wolff WJ (eds) Marine mammals of the Wadden Sea. Balkema Rotterdam, pp 51-58.Google Scholar
  63. Wienecke G (1982) Untersuchungen von Sediment und Bodenfauna in der Wesermündung in Zusammenhang mit säure-und eisenhaltigen Abwässern. Jahresber Forsch stelle Insel Küstenschutz, Norderney 32:119–171.Google Scholar
  64. Wit JAW de, Schotel FM, Bekkers LEJ (1982) De waterkwaliteit van de Waddenzee 1971–1981. Rijkswaterstaat Rijksinst Zuivering Afvalwater Nota 82 065–67.Google Scholar
  65. Wolff WJ (1983) Ecology of the Wadden Sea. Balkema Rotterdam, 2000 pp.Google Scholar
  66. Zimmerman JTF (1976) Mixing and flushing of tidal embayments in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, I + II. Neth J Sea Res 10:149–191, 397-439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zimmerman JTF, Rommets J (1974) Natural fluorescence as a tracer in the Dutch Wadden Sea and the adjacent North Sea. Neth J Sea Res 8:117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. J. Wolff
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute for Nature ManagementLeersumThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations