Advertisement

Clinical Use of Class Ib Antiarrhythmic Drugs

  • D. W. G. Harron
  • R. G. Shanks
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 89)

Abstract

Antiarrhythmic drugs have been classified into four classes depending on their cellular electrophysiology (Vaughan Williams 1974), as discussed in detail in Chap. 2.

Keywords

Acute Myocardial Infarction Ventricular Arrhythmia Acute Myocardial Infarction Antiarrhythmic Drug Effective Refractory Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abinader EG, Cooper M (1979) Mexiletine in control of chronic drug-resistant ventricular arrhythmia. JAMA 242: 337–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen JD, Arnold JMO (1974) Comparison of effects of mexiletine, lignocaine and procainamide on canine Purkinje fibres. J Physiol (Lond) 236: 26 PGoogle Scholar
  3. Almotrefi AA, Baker JBE (1980) The antiflbrillatory potency of aprindine, mexiletine, tocainide and lignocaine compared on Langendorff perfused hearts of rabbits and guinea pigs. J Pharm Pharmacol 32: 746–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson JL (1984) Current understanding of lidocaine as an antiarrhythmic agent: a review. Clin Ther 6 (2): 125–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson JL, Mason JW, Winkle RA et al. (1978) Clinical electrophysiologic effects of tocainide. Circulation 57: 685–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Banim SO, Stone D, Aniceto Da Silva, Balcon R (1977) Observations of the haemody-namics of mexiletine. Post Med J 53 (Suppl l): 74–76Google Scholar
  7. Barchowsky A, Shand DG, Stargel WW, Wagner GS, Routledge FA (1982) On the role of aracid glycoprotein in lignocaine accumulation following myocardial infarction. Br J Clin Pharmacol 13: 411–415Google Scholar
  8. Bastion BC, Macfarlane PW, McLaughlan JH, Ballantyne D, Clark R, Hillis WS, Rae AP, Hutton I (1980) A prospective randomized trial of tocainide in patients following myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 100: 1017–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beattie JM, Hutton I, McLauchlan J, Meyer MB (1978) Tocainide pharmacokinetics in patients with acute myocardial infarction. 51st scientific sessions. American Heart Association, Dallas, Texas Beckett AH, Chidomere EC (1977) The distribution, metabolism and excretion of mexiletine in man. Postgrad Med J (Suppl 1 ) 53: 60–66Google Scholar
  10. Begg EJ, Chiwah PM, Webb C, Rodam DNW (1982) Enhanced metabolism of mexiletine after phenytoin administration. Br J Clin Pharmacol 14: 219–223Google Scholar
  11. Binnion PF, Murtagh G, Pollock AM, Fletcher E (1969) Relation between plasma lignocaine levels and induced haemodynamic changes. Br Med J 3: 390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blumer J, Strong JM, Atkinson AJ (1978) The convulsant potency of lidocaine and its N-dealkylated metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 180: 31–36Google Scholar
  13. Boyes RN, Meyer MB, Hutton I, Tweddel A (1981) Tocainide blood levels following intravenous and oral administration. In: Pottage A, Ryden L (eds) Workshop onGoogle Scholar
  14. tocainide. Proceedings from a conference held in Copenhagen, 1979. Hassle, Molndal, Sweden, pp 105–108Google Scholar
  15. Boyle DM, Barber JM, Chapman C, Khalid I, Kinney C, Mcllmoyle EL, Salathia K, Shanks RG (1982) Comparison of plasma concentrations and efficacy of mexile-tine and a slow release preparation of mexiletine in patients admitted to a coronary care unit. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 4: 174–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Branch RA, Shand DG, Wilkinson GR, Nies AS (1973) The reduction of lidocaine clearance by dl-propranolol: an example of hemodynamic drug interaction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 184: 515–519Google Scholar
  17. Braude AC, Downar E, Chamberlain DW, Rebuck AS (1982) Tocainide associated interstitial pneumonitis. Thorax 37: 309–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burket MW, Frrker TD, Temesy-Armos PN (1985) Polymorphous ventricular tachycardia provoked by lidocaine. Am J Cardiol 55: 592–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burton JR, Mathew MT, Armstrong PW (1976) Comparative effects of lignocaine and procainamide on acutely impaired haemodynamics. Am J Med 61: 215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell NPS, Chaturvedi NC, Kelly JG, Strong JE, Shanks RG (1973) Mexiletine (Ko 1173) in the management of ventricular dysrhythmias. Lancet 2: 404–407Google Scholar
  21. Campbell RWF, Talbot RG, Dolder MA, Murray A, Prescott LF, Julian DG (1975) Comparison of procainamide and mexiletine in prevention of ventricular arrhyth-mias after acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1: 1257–1260Google Scholar
  22. Campbell RWF, Dolder MA, Prescott LF, Talbot RG, Murray A, Julian DG (1977) Ventricular arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction treated with procainamide or mexiletine. Postgrad Med J 53 (Suppl 1): 150–153Google Scholar
  23. Campbell NPS, Kelly JG, Adgey AAJ, Shanks RG (1978 a) Mexiletine in normal volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 6: 372–373Google Scholar
  24. Campbell NPS, Kelly JG, Adgey AAJ, Shanks RG (1978 b) The clinical pharmacology of mexiletine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 6: 103–108Google Scholar
  25. Campbell RWF, Bryson LG, Bailey BJ, Murray A, Julian DG (1979) Oral tocainide in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 60 (Suppl II): 70Google Scholar
  26. Camm AJ (1984) Electrophysiology of new anti-arrhythmic drugs. Eur Heart J 5 (Suppl B): 75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Castellanos A, Ferreiro J, Pefkaros K et al. (1982) Effects of lidocaine on bidirectional tachycardia and on digitalis induced atrial tachycardia with block. Br Heart J 48: 27–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chamberlain DA, Julian DG, Boyle D McC, Jewitt DE, Campbell RWF, Shanks RG (1980) Oral mexiletine in high risk patients after myocardial infarction. Lancet 11: 1324–1327Google Scholar
  29. Cheng TO, Wadhwa K (1973) Sinus standstill following intravenous lidocaine administration. JAMA 223: 790–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Currie P, Ramsdale DR (1984) Paranoid psychosis induced by tocainide. Br Med J 288: 606–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davidson R, Parker M, Atkinson AJ (1982) Excessive serum lidocaine levels during maintenance infusions: mechanism and prevention. Am Heart J 104: 203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dimarco JP, Garan H, Ruskin JN (1981) Mexiletine for refractory ventricular arrhythmias: results using serial electrophysiologic testing. Am J Cardiol 47: 131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Duff HJ, Roden D, Kirby-Primm R, Oates JA, Woosley RL (1983) Mexiletine in the tratment of resistant ventricular arrhythmias: enhancement of efficacy and reduction in dose related side effects by combination with quinidine. Circulation 67 (5): 1124–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Duff HJ, Roden DM, Marney S et al. (1984) Molecular basis for the antigenicity of lidocaine analogs: tocainide and mexiletine. Am Heart J 107: 585–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunn HM, McComb JM, Kinney CD, Campbell NPS, Shanks RG, Mackenzie G, Adgey AAJ (1985) Prophylactic lidocaine in the early phase of suspected myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 110: 353–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Easley A, Higgins S, Thieme L, Lindenfeld J, Reiter MJ (1985) Tocainide in preventing inducible ventricular tachycardia in unselected patients (abstr). Clin Res 33 (1): 6AGoogle Scholar
  37. El Allaf D, Henrard L, Crochelet L, Delapierre D, Carlier J, Dresse A (1982) Pharmac-okinetics of mexiletine in renal insufficiency. Br J Clin Pharmacol 14: 431–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Elvin AT, Lalka D, Stoeckel K, du Souich P, Axelson JC, Golden LH, McLean AJ ( 1980 a) Tocainide kinetics and metabolism. Effects of phenobarbitone and substances for glucuranyl transferase. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28: 652–658Google Scholar
  39. Elvin AT, Keenaghan JB, Byrnes EW, Tenthorney Pa, McMaster PD, Takman BH, Lalka D, Meyer MB, Lenfeld RA (1980b) Tocainide conjugation in humans. Novel biotransformation pathway for a primary amine. J Pharm Sci 69: 47–49Google Scholar
  40. Engler RL, LeWinter M (1981) Tocainide-induced ventricular fibrillation. Am Heart J 101: 494–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Esser H, Kikis D (1978) Mexiletine in the suppression of ventricular ectopic activity: short and long term treatment. Proceedings of the symposium on management of ventricular tachycardia, role of mexiletine. Excerpta Medica, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  42. Esterbrooks D, Aronow WS, Mohiuddin SM, Sketch MH, Mooss AN, Hee TT, Booth RW, Butler ML (1983) Effects of tocainide on ventricular arrhythmias refractory to standard oral anti-arrhythmic drugs but responsive to intravenous lignocaine. Curr Ther Res 33: 272–278Google Scholar
  43. Feely J, Wilkinson GR, McAllister CB, Wood AJ (1982) Increased toxicity and reduced clearance of lignocaine by Cimetidine. Ann Intern Med 96: 592–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fenster PE, Hanson CD (1983) Mexiletine and quinidine in ventricular ectopy. ClinGoogle Scholar
  45. Pharmacol Ther 34:136-142 Fenster PE, Kern KB (1983) Mexiletine in refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Clin Pharmacol Ther 34:777–784Google Scholar
  46. Furberg CD (1983) Effect of anti-arrhythmic drugs on mortality after myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 52: 320–326Google Scholar
  47. Gianelly R, Vondergroeben JO, Spivack AP, Harrison DC (1967) Effect of lidocaine on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 277: 1215–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldberg MJ, Spector R, Johnston GF (1982) Racial background and lidocaine phar-macokinetics. J Clin Pharmacol 22: 391–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Graffner C (1981) Tocainide pharmacokinetics: absorption metabolism, excretion; In: Pottage A, Ryden L, (eds) Workshop on tocainide. Proceedings from a conference held in Copenhagen, 1979. Hassle, Molndal, Sweden, pp 90–99Google Scholar
  50. Graffner C, Conradson T, Hofoendahl S, Ryden L (1980) Tocainide kinetics after intravenous and oral administration in healthy subjects and in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clin Pharmacol Ther 27: 64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Griffin J, Schnittger F, Peters PJ, Meffin R, Hav R, Kernoff R, Winkle RA (1977) Effects of tocainide on ventricular fibrillation threshold. Circulation 56: 158–162Google Scholar
  52. Gupta, PK, Lichstein E, Chadda KD (1974) Lignocaine induced heart block in patients with bundle branch block. Am J Cardiol 33: 487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haffajee CI, Sacks CM, Alpert JS, Howe JP, Ockene IS, Paraskos JA, Dalen JE (1983) Chronic tocainide therapy for refractory high-grade ventricular arrhythmias. Clin Cardiol 6: 72–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Halkin H, Meffin P, Melman KL, Rowland M (1975) Influence of congestive heart failure on blood levels of lidocaine and its active monodeethylated metabolite. Clin Pharmacol Ther 17: 669–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Harrison DC (1978) Should lidocaine be administered routinely to all patients after acute myocardial infarction? Circulation 58: 581–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Harrison DC, Alderman EL (1972) The pharmacology and clinical use of lidocaine as an antiarrhythmic drug. Mod Treat 9: 139–175Google Scholar
  57. Harrison DC, Meffin PJ, Winkle RA (1977) Clinical pharmacokinetics of anti-arrhythmic drugs. Prog Cardiocasc Dis 20: 217–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Haselbarth V, Doevendans Je, Wolf M (1981) Kinetics and bioavailability of mexiletine in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 29: 729–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Heger JJ, Nattel S, Rinkenberger RL, Zipes DP (1980) Mexiletine therapy in 15 patients with drug resistant ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 45: 627–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Herzog P, Holtermuller KH, Kasper W, Meinertz T, Trenk D, Jahnchen E (1982) Absorption of mexiletine after treatment with gastric antacids. Br J Clin Pharmacol 14: 746–747Google Scholar
  61. Horn HR, Hadidan Z, Johnson JL, Vassallo HG, Williams JH, Young MD (1980) Safety evaluation of tocainide in the American emergency use program. Am Heart J 100: 1037–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Horowitz JD, Anavekar SN, Morris PM, Goble AJ, Doyle AE, Louis WJ (1981) Com-parative trial of mexiletine and lignocaine in the treatment of early ventricular ta-chyarrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 3: 409–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Horowitz LN, Josephson ME, Farshidi A (1978) Human electropharmacology of tocainide, a lignocaine congener. Am J Cardiol 42: 276–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ikram H (1980) Haemodynamic and electrophysiologic interactions between antiarrhythmic grugs and beta-blockers with special reference to tocainide. Am Heart J 100: 1976Google Scholar
  65. Impact Research Group (1984) International mexiletine and placebo anti-arrhythmic coronary trial: 1. Report on arrhythmia and other findings. J Am Coll Cardiol 4 (6): 1184–1163Google Scholar
  66. Jewitt DE, Jackson G, McComish M (1977) Comparative anti-arrhythmic efficacy of mexiletine procainamide and tolamolol in patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias. Postgrad Med J 53 (Suppl 1): 158–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Josephson ME, Caracta AR, Lau SH et al. (1972) Effects of lidocaine on refractory periods in man. Am Heart J 84: 778–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Keefe DL, Williams S, Torres V, Flowers D, Somberg JC (1986) Prophylactic tocainide or lidocaine in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 57: 527–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klein MD, Lavine PA, Ryan JJ (1980) Antiarrhythmic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and clinical safety of tocainide in convalescent myocardial infarction patients. Chest 7: 726–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Koster RW, Dunning AJ (1985) Intramuscular lidocaine for prevention of lethal arrhythmias in the pre-hospitalization phase of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 313: 1105–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kuck KH, Hanrath P, Lubda J, Mathey D, Bleifeld W (1979) Antiarrhythmic effect of tocainide (lidocaine congener) on ventricular arrhythmias. Dtsch Med Wo- chenschr 104: 1701–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lalka D, Meyer MB, Duce BR, Elvin AT (1976) Kinetics of the oral anti-arrhythmic lignocaine congener tocainide. Clin Pharmacol Ther 19: 757–777Google Scholar
  73. Levin RI, Fox A (1982) Hepatitis in human subjects associated with tocainide administration. Clin Res 30:200a LeWinter MM, Engler RL, Karliner JS (1980) Tocainide therapy for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias: assessment with ambulatory electrographic monitoring and treadmill exercise. Am J Cardiol 45: 1045–1052Google Scholar
  74. Lie KI, Wellens HJ, Van Capelle FJ, Durrer D (1974) Lidocaine in the prevention of primary ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med 291: 1324–1326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lie KI, Wellens HJJ, Downar E, Durrer D (1975) Observations on patients with primary ventricular fibrillation complicating acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 52: 755–759Google Scholar
  76. Lown B, Vassauz CC (1968) Lidocaine in acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 76: 586–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maloney JD, Nissen RG, McColgan JM (1980) Open clinical studies at a referral centre: chronic maintenance tocainide therapy in patients with recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia refractory to conventional anti-arrhythmic agent. Am Heart J 100: 1023–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mandal SK, Datta SK (1983) Nodal bradycardia induced by tocainide. Postgrad Med J 59: 262–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. May GS, Furberg CD, Eberlein KA, Geraci BJ (1983) Secondary prevention after myocardial infarction: a review of short-term acute phase trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 25: 335–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McComish M, Kitson D, Robinson C, Jewitt DE (1977) Clinical electrophysiological effects of mexiletine, Postgrad Med J 53 (Suppl 1): 85–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. McDevitt DG, Nies AS, Wilkinson GR, Smith RF, Woosley RL, Oates JA (1976) Antiarrhythmic effects of a lidocaine congener, tocainide, 2-amino-2’,6’-proprionoxyli- dide, in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 19: 396–402Google Scholar
  82. McLaran CJ, Hossack KF, Nielson GH, Siskind V (1984) Oral tocainide versus dis- opyramide: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study of outpatients with stable ventricular premature beats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6: 657–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Meffin PJ, Winkle RA, Blaschke TF, Fitzgerald J, Harrison DC, Hasapat SR, Bell PA (1977) Response optimization of drug dosage: antiarrhythmic studies with tocai-nide. Clin Pharmacol Ther 22: 42–57Google Scholar
  84. Mehta J, Conti CR (1982) Mexiletine, a new anti-arrhythmic agent for treatment of premature ventricular complexes. Am J Cardiol 49: 455–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Moore EN, Spear JF, Horowitz LN (1978) Electrophysiologic properties of a new antiarrhythmic drug—tocainide. Am J Cardiol 41: 703–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Morganroth J, Panidis IP, Harley S, Johnson J, Smith E, MacVaugh H (1984) Efficacy and safety of intravenous tocainide compared with intravenous lidocaine for acute ventricular arrhythmias immediately after cardiac surgery. Am J Cardiol 54: 1253–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morganroth J, Nestico PF, Horowitz LN (1985) A review of the uses and limitations of tocainide—a class IB antiarrhythmic agent. Am Heart J 110: 856–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nicholas J, Boyle DMcC, Kinney CD, Salathia K, Shanks RG (1986) Plasma concentrations and acceptability of mexiletine given by intramuscular injection in patients admitted to a coronary care unit. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 8: 21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nyquist O, Forssell G, Norland RR, Schenck-Gustafsson K (1980) Haemodynamic and anti-arrhythmic effects of tocainide in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 100: 1000–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ochs HR, Knuchel M, Abernethy DR, Greenblatt DJ (1983) Dose-independent phar-macokinetics of intravenous lidocaine in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 23: 286–188Google Scholar
  91. Oltmanns D (1982) Pharmacokinetics of tocainide in patients with chronic liver disease. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 321 (Suppl): R49Google Scholar
  92. O’Malley K, Crooks J, Duke E, Stevenson IH (1971) Effect of age and sex on human drug metabolism. Br Med J 3: 607–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Oshita S, Sada H, Kojima M, Ban T (1980) Effects of tocainide and lignocaine on the transmembrane action potentials as related to external potassium and calcium concentrations in guinea pig papillary muscles. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 314: 67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Palileo H, Hoff J, Swiryn S, Bauernfeind R, Strasberg B, Welch W, Rosen K (1982) Failure of mexiletine in drug-refractory paroxysmal sustained ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 49: 1003Google Scholar
  95. Pantridge JF, Geddes JS (1974) Primary ventricular fibrillation. Eur J Cardiol 1: 335–337Google Scholar
  96. Park BK, Breckenridge AM (1981) Clinical implications of enzyme induction and enzyme inhibition. Clin Pharmacokinet 6: 1–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pentikainen PJ, Koivula IH, Hiltunen HA (1982) Effect of rifampicin treatment on the kinetics of mexiletine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 23: 261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Perlow GM, Jain BP, Pauker SG, Zarren HS, Wistran DC, Epstein RL (1981) Tocainide associated interstitial pneumonitis. Ann Intern Med 94: 489–490Google Scholar
  99. Pfeifer JH, Greenblatt DJ, Kockweser J (1976) Clinical use and toxicity of intravenous lidocaine: a report from the Boston collaborative drug surveillance program. Am Heart J 92: 168–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pieper JA, Slaughter RL, Anderson GD et al. (1982) Lidocaine clinical pharmacokin-etics. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 16: 291–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Podrid PJ, Lown B (1981) Mexiletine for ventricular arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 47: 895–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pottage A (1977) Oral dosage schedules for mexiletine. Postgrad Med J 53 (Suppl 1): 155–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pottage A (1983) Clinical profiles of newer class I antiarrhythmic agents—tocainide, mexiletine, encainide, flecainide and lorcainide. Am J Cardiol 52: 24c–31cPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pozenel H (1977) Haemodynamic studies on mexiletine, a new anti-arrhythmic agent.Google Scholar
  105. Postgrad Med J 53 (Suppl l):78-80 Prescott LF, Pottage A, Clements JA (1977) Adsorption, distribution and elimination of mexiletine. Postgrad Med J 53:50–55Google Scholar
  106. Pringle T, Fox J, McNeill JA, Kinney CD, Liddle J, Harron DWG, Shanks RG (1986) Dose independent pharmacokinetics of mexiletine in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 21: 319–321Google Scholar
  107. Riddell JG, McAllister CB, Wilkinson GR, Wood AJJ, Roden DM (1984) A new method for constant plasma drug concentrations: application to lidocaine. Ann Intern Med 100: 25–28Google Scholar
  108. Roden DM, Reele SB, Higgins SB et al. (1980) Tocainide therapy for refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Am Heart J 100: 15–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Roos JC, Paalman DCA, Dunning AJ (1977) Electrophysiological effects of mexiletine in man. Postgrad Med J 53 (Suppl l): 92–94Google Scholar
  110. Rubino M, Jackson E (1982) Severe paranoia with concomitant tocainide and propranolol therapy. Clin Pharm 1: 177–179Google Scholar
  111. Rutledge JC, Harris F, Amsterdam EA, Skalsky E (1985) Clinical evaluation of oral mexiletine in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 6: 780–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ryan W, Engler R, LeWinter M (1979) Efficacy of a new oral agent (tocainide) in the acute treatment of refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 43: 285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ryden L, Amman K, Conradson T, Hofvendahl S, Mortensen O, Smedgard P (1980) Prophylaxis of ventricular tachyarrhythmias with intravenous and oral tocainide in patients with and recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 100: 1006–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sami M, Lisbona R (1985) Mexiletine: long-term efficacy and haemodynamic actions in patients with ventricular arrhythmias. Can J Cardiol 1: 251–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Saris SD, Lowenthal DT, Affrime MB (1983) Steady state digoxin concentration during oral mexiletine administration. Curr Ther Res 34: 662–666Google Scholar
  116. Sawyer DR, Ludden TM, Crawford MH (1981) Continuous infusion of lidocaine in patients with cardiac arrhytmias. Unpredictability of plasma concentrations. Arch Intern Med 141: 43–45Google Scholar
  117. Sedman AJ, Bloedow DC, Gal J (1982) Serum binding of tocainide and its enantiomers in human subjects. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 38: 165–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Smith WM, Gallagher JJ (1980) Les torsades de pointes: an unusual ventricular arrhythmia. Ann Intern Med 93: 578–584Google Scholar
  119. Sonnhag C (1980) Efficacy and tolerance of tocainide during acute and long term treatment of chronic ventricular arrhythmias. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 18: 301–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stargel WW, Shand DG, Routledge PA et al. (1981) Clinical comparison of rapid infusion and multiple injection methods for lidocaine loading. Am Heart J 102: 872–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stein J, Podrid P, Lown B (1984) Effects of oral mexiletine on left and right ventricular function. Am J Cardiol 54: 575–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stenson RE, Constantino RT, Harrison DC (1971) Interrelationships of hepatic blood flow, cardiac output, and blood levels of lidocaine in man. Circulation 43: 205–211Google Scholar
  123. Sutton PP (1980) Pharmacokinetics of tocainide in acute myocardial ischaemia. Br J Clin Pharmacol 10: 530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Swedberg K, Holmberg S (1981) Antiarrhythmic effects and patient tolerance to tocainide in acute myocardial infarction—a randomized double blind study lasting 48 hours. In: Pottage A, Ryden L (eds) Workshop on tocainide. Proceedings from a conference in Copenhagen, 1977. Hassle, Molndal, Sweden, pp 190–193Google Scholar
  125. Swedberg K, Pehrson J, Ryden L (1978) Electrocardiographic and haemodynamic effects of tocainide (W36095) in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 14: 15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Talbot RG, Clark RA, Nimmo J, Neilson JMM, Julian DG, Prescott JF (1973) Treatment of ventricular arrhythmias with mexiletine (Ko 1173). Lancet 2: 399–404Google Scholar
  127. Talbot RG, Julian DG, Prescott LF (1976) Long-term treatment of ventricular arrhyth-mias with oral mexiletine. Am Heart J 91: 58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Thomson PD, Melmon KL, Richardson JA et al. (1973) Lidocaine pharmacokinetics in advanced heart failure, liver disease and renal failure in humans. Ann Intern Med 78: 499–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Trimarco B, Ricciardelli B, DeLuca N, Volpe M, Sacca K, Rengo F, Condorelli M (1983) Disopyramide, mexiletine and procainamide in the long term and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias: antiarrhythmic efficacy and haemodynamic effects. Curr Ther Res 33 (3): 472–487Google Scholar
  130. Turner WM (1982) Lidocaine and psychotic reactions. Ann Intern Med 97:149-150 Valentine PA, Frew JL, Mashford ML, Sloman JG (1974) Lidocaine in the prevention of sudden death in the pre-hospital phase of acute infarction. N Engl J Med 291: 1327–1331Google Scholar
  131. Van Durme JP, Bogaert M, Bekaert I, DeClereq D, Moerman E (1978) Comparison of the anti-dysrhythmic efficacy of atenolol, disopyramide, mexiletine and placebo. Proceedings of the symposium on management of ventricular tachycardia—role of mexiletine. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 21–26Google Scholar
  132. Vaughan Williams EM (1974) Electrophysiological basis for a rational approach to anti-dysrhythmic drug therapy. Adv Drug Res 9: 69–101Google Scholar
  133. Vaughan Williams EM (1977) Mexiletine in isolated tissue models. Postgrad Med J 53 (Suppl l): 30–4Google Scholar
  134. Vaughan Williams EM (1984) A classification of anti-arrhythmic drugs reassessed after a decade of new drugs. J Clin Pharmacol 24: 129–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Velebit V, Podrid P, Lown B, Cohen BH, Graboys TB (1982) Aggrevation and provocation of ventricular arrhythmias by anti-arrhythmic drugs. Circulation 65: 886–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Volosin K, Greenberg RM, Greenspon AJ (1985) Tocainide associated agranulocytosis. Am Heart J 109: 1392–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wasenmiller JE, Aronow WS (1980) Effect of tocainide and quinidine on premature ventricular contractions. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28: 431–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Waspe LE, Waxman HL, Buxton AE, Josephson ME (1983) Mexiletine for control of drug resistant ventricular tachycardia: clinical and electrophysiologic results in 44 patients. Am J Cardiol 51: 1175–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Weigers U, Hanrath P, Kuck KH, Pottage A, Graffner C, Augustin J, Runge M (1983) Pharmacokinetics of tocainide in patients with renal dysfunction and during hae- modialysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 24: 503–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Williams RL, Mamelok RD (1980) Hepatic disease and drug pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet 5: 528–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wing LMH, Meffin PJ, Grygeil JJ, Smith KJ, Birkett DJ (1980) The effect of metoclop- ramide and atropine on the absorption of orally administered mexiletine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 9: 505–509Google Scholar
  142. Winkle RA, Meffin PJ, Fitzgerald JW, Harrison DC (1976) Clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a new orally effective anti-arrhythmic, tocainide. Circulation 54: 884–889Google Scholar
  143. Winkle RA, Anderson JL, Peters F, Meffin PJ, Fowles RE, Harrison DC (1978 a) The haemodynamic effects of intravenous tocainide in patients with heart disease. Circulation 57: 787–792Google Scholar
  144. Winkle RA, Meffin PJ, Harrison DC (1978b) Long term tocainide therapy in ventricu-lar arrhythmias. Circulation 57: 1008–1016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Winkle RA, Mason JW, Harrison DC (1980) Tocainide for drug resistant ventricular arrhythmias: efficacy, side effects and lidocaine responsiveness for predicting tocainide success. Am Heart J 100: 1031–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Woosley RL, McDevitt DG, Nies AS, Smith RF, Wilkinson GR, Oates JA (1977) Suppression of ventricular ectopic depolarizations by tocainide. Circulation 56: 980–984Google Scholar
  147. Wyman MG, Lalka D, Hammersmith L et al. (1978) Multiple bolus technique for lidocaine administration during the first hours of an acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 41: 313–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Yamaguchi I, Singh BN, Mandel MJ (1979) Electrophysiological actions of mexiletine on isolated rabbit atria and canine ventricular muscle and Purkinje fibres. Cardio- vasc Res 13: 288–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zbarbaro JA, Rawlings DA, Fozzard HA (1979) Suppression of ventricular arrhyth-mias with intravenous disopyramide and lidocaine efficacy compared in a randomized trial. Am J Cardiol 44: 513–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zipes DP, Troup PJ (1978) New antiarrhythmic agents. Am J Cardiol 41: 1005–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. G. Harron
  • R. G. Shanks

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations