Humulus lupulus L. (Hop): In Vitro Culture; Attempted Production of Bittering Components and Novel Disease Resistance

  • J. B. Heale
  • T. Legg
  • S. Connell
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 7)


Hops (Humulus lupulus L., family: Cannabinaceae) are widely grown throughout the world, being indigenous in the northern hemisphere above 32 ° latitude; they have also been introduced into the southern hemisphere, including S.-America, S.-Africa, New Zealand, and Australia (Connell 1986). The hop is a dioecious plant, normally diploid (2n = 20), with a strong climbing habit, resulting in twining shoots reaching as high as 7–9 m in the growing season (Fig. 1A), the rootstock perennating from late autumn to the following spring. The stem (bine) and oppositely arranged leaves bear coarse hairs. The crop is cultivated for the resins and essential oils produced by the lupulin glands in the flowers (cones) of female plants (Fig. 1C) (Hough et al. 1982). Scattered male plants may be grown amongst the stand of females in order to produce so-called seeded hops as traditionally produced in the UK, but brewers producing lighter, lager-type beers normally require seedless hops (Hough et al. 1982).


Culture Filtrate Verticillium Wilt Fluorescein Diacetate Green Callus Leaf Mesophyll Protoplast 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Heale
  • T. Legg
  • S. Connell
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology Department, King’s CollegeUniversity of LondonCampden Hill, LondonUK

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