As Braun and Hartnack (Pomm. Geogr. Ges. Gedenkheft zum fünfzigjährigen Bestehen, Greifswald 1932) emphasized, every land area upon whose countenance man has impressed distinct traces of his activity contains both “totalizing” and “centralizing” features. The totalizing features are present more or less everywhere in the land area in question and therefore give it the same areal character. Adjacent areas, however, have different totalizing features. Centralizing features, in contrast, proceed from a point, for example a city, or from a line, for instance a river valley, or a section of railroad. These points or lines may lie on the border of the previously considered areas, which stand out as uniform individualities because of their geographical totality. The centralizing features radiate from the points or lines into the various areas that resulted from the totalizing view.