Advertisement

Virusinfektionen durch Übertragung von Blut und Plasmaprodukten

  • M. Roggendorf
Conference paper

Zusammenfassung

Einige Erreger, Viren, Bakterien und Protozoen kommen passager oder permanent im Blut vor und können bei Bluttransfusionen bzw. therapeutischer Anwendung von Plasmaprodukten übertragen werden (Tabelle 1). Zu den Viren, die nicht zellständig im Blut vorkommen, gehören das Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV), die Erreger der parenteralen Hepatitis Nicht-A/Nicht-B (HNANB-P) und in seltenen Fällen das Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). Eine zweite Gruppe von Viren kommt sowohl in Zellen des Blutes als auch im Plasma vor. Das Cytomegalievirus (CMV) kann in Monozyten persistieren. Das Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) wird durch B-Lymphozyten übertragen, HTLV I, II und HIV-1 und -2 werden durch T-Lymphozyten übertragen. Zu dieser Gruppe gehört auch das Parvovirus B19, das sowohl frei im Plasma als auch in Erythroblasten vorkommt.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Aach RD, Lander JJ, Sherman LA, Miller WV, Kahn RA, Gitnick GL, Hollinger FB, Werch J, Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Kellner A, Weiner JM, Mosley JW (1987) Transfusion-transmitted viruses: interim analysis of hepatitis among transfused and nontransfused patients. In: Viral Hepatitis. Vyas GN, Dohen SN, Schmid R (eds). Franlin Institute Press Philadelphia, 383–396Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alter HJ, Holland PV, Purcell RH (1975) The emerging pattern of post-transfusion hepatitis. Am J Med Sei, 270: 329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alter HJ, Purcell RH, Holland PV, Feinstone SM, Morrow AG, Moritsugu Y (1975) Clinical and serological analysis of transfusion-associated hepatitis. Lancet, ii: 838–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balayan M (1938) Non-A. Non-B hepatitis transmitted in fecal-oral route evidence for a causative agent. Intervirology, 20: 23–31Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brechot C, Degos F, Lugassy C, Thiers V, Zafrani S, Franco D, Bismuth H, Trepo C, Benhamou J-P, Wands J, Isselbacher K, Tiollais P, Berthelot P (1985) Hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with chronic liver disease and negative tests for hepatitis B surface antigen. New Engl J Med, 270Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Couroucé B (1985) Viraemia with human parvovirus. Lancet, i: 1218–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deinhardt F, Gust ID (1982) Viral hepatitis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 60 (5): 611–691Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dienstag JL, Alaama A, Mosley JW, Redeker AG, Purcell RH (1977) Etiology of sporadic hepatitis B surface antigen negative hepatitis. Ann Intern Med, 87: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goldfield M, Bill J, Colosimo F (1978) The control of transfusion-associated hepatitis. In: Vyas GN, Cohen SN, Schmid R (eds). Viral hepatitis: a contemporary assessment of etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention. Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 405–414Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Havens WP (1946) Period of infectivity of patients with experimentally induced infectious hepatitis. J Exp Med, 83: 251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hornbrook MC, Dodd RY, Jacobs P, Friedman LI, Sherman KE (1982) Reducing the incidence of non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis by testing donor blood for alanine aminotransferase. New Engl J Med, 307: 1315–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jilg W, Lorbeer B, Schmidt M, Wilske B, Zoulek G, Deinhardt F (1984) Clinical evaluation of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Lancet ii: 1174–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kaboth U, et al. (1980) Kooperative prospektive Studie „Akute Virushepatitis“ (DFG). Verh Deutsch Ges Inn Med, 86: 749–756Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kurhoo MS (1980) Study of an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis: possibility of another human hepatitis virus distinct from post-transfusion non-A, non-B type. Am J Med, 68: 818–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Knoden RG, Conrad ME, Ginsberg AL, Bell CJ, Flannery EP (1976) Efficacy of prophylactic gamma-globulin in preventing non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis. Lancet, i: 557–561Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mortimer PP, Luban NLD, Kelleher JF, Cohen BJ (1983) Transmission of serum parvovirus-like virus by clotting-factor concentrates. Lancet ii: 482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nalpas B, Berthelot P, Thiers V, Duhamel G, Couroucé AM, Tiollais P, Brechot C (1985) Hepatitis B virus multipliaction in the absence of usual serological markers. J Hepatol, 1: 89–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Plummer FA, Hammond GW, Forward K, Sekla L, Thompson LM, Jones SE, Kidd IM, Anderson MJ (1985) An erythema infectiosumlike illness caused by human parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med, 313: 74–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ (1985) Human parvo- vorus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Lancet i: 422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rizzetto M, Canese MG, Arico S, Crivelli O, Trepo C, Bonino F, Verme G (1977) Immunofluorescence detection of a new antigen-antibody system (delta/anti-delta) associated to hepatitis B virus in the liver and in serum of HBsAg-carriers. Gut, 18: 997–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rizzetto M, Hoyer D, Purcell R, Gerin J (1984) Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection. In: Vyas GN, Dienstag JL, Hoofnagle J (eds). Procceedings of the 1984 International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis. Grune and Stratton, Orlando, USA, 371–379Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Robinson W (1982) The enigma of non-A, non-B hepatitis. J Inf Dis, 387–392Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F, Böhm B, Tabor E (1985) Demonstration of a transient rheumatopid factor in the acute phase of a transient rheumatoid factor in the acute phase of hepatitis non-A, non-B. J Med Virol, 15: 271–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roggendorf M, Gmelin K, Zoulek G, Woilf P, Schlipköter U, Jilg W, Theilmann L, Deinhardt F (1986) Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus in FRG. J Hepatol, 2: 230–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Seto B, Coleman WG, Iwarson S, Gerety RJ (1984) Detection of reverse transcriptase activity in association with the non-A, non-B hepatitis agent(s). Lancet ii: 941–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Seeberg S, Brandberg A, Hermodsson S, Larsson P, Lundgren S (1981) Hospital outbreak of hepatitis A secondary to blood exchange in a baby. Lancet i: 1155–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seeff LB, Wright EC, Zimmerman HJ, Hoofnagle JH, Dietz AA, Felsher BF, Garcia-Pont PH, Gerety RJ, Greenlee HB, Kiernan T, Leevy CM, Nath N, Schiff ER, Schwartz C, Tabor E, Tamburro C, Vlahcevic Z, Zemel R, Zimmon DS (1982) Posttransfusion hepatitis. 1973–1975: A veterans administration cooperative study. In: Viral Hepatitis. Vyas GN; Cohen SN, Schmid R (eds). Franklin Institute Press Philadelphia, 371–381Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Skidmore SJ, Boxall EH, Ala F (1982) A case report of posttransfusion hepatitis A. J Med Virol, 10: 223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smedile A, Verme G, Cargnel A, et al: Influence of delta infection on severity of hepatitis B. The Lancet ii: 945–947Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stevens CE, Alter HJ, Taylor PE, Zang EA, Harley EJ, Szmuness W, and the Dialysis Vaccine Trial Study Group. Hepatitis B vaccine in patients receiving hemodialysis. Immunogenicity and efficacy. New Engl J Med, 311: 496–501Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F (1987) Prevalence of B19 infections in the FRG. Lancet i: Lancet i, 739Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wands J, Fujita Y, Isselbacher J, Degott C, Schellekens H, Dazza MC, Thiers V, Tiollais P, Brechot C: Identification and transmission of hepatitis B virus related variants. PNAS, 6608–6612Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang KS, Choo QL, Weiner AJ, Ou JH, Najarían RC, Thayer RM, Mullenbuch GT, Denniston KJ, Gerin JL, Houghton M: Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta viral genome. Nature, 323: 508Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wong DC, et al (1984) Epidemic and endemic hepatitis in India: Evidence for a nonA, non-B hepatitis virus etiology. Lancet, ii: 876–879Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zachoval R, Jilg W, Lorbeer B, Schmidt M, Deinhardt F (1984) Passive-active immunization against hepatitis B. J Infect Dis, 150: 112–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Roggendorf

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations