Advertisement

Clinical Course of Affective Disorders

Conference paper

Abstract

Studies on the course of affective disorders have an impressive tradition that spans about 100 years. The classification has changed over these years and we can roughly distinguish three periods. The first begins with Falret’s (1851) definition of bipolar disorders and the distinction between depression and bipolar illness. In 1889, Kraepelin unified all subgroups of affective disorders of patients suffering from either mania or depression, or both, and termed this the “manic-depressive psychosis.” His influence dominated until the late 1960s when the papers of Leonhard et al. (1962), Angst (1966), Perris (1966), and Winokur and Clayton (1967) suggested a return to differentiating between monopolar, or unipolar, depression and bipolar disorder. Thus homogeneous subgroups such as mania or depression were mainly studied during the first of the aforesaid periods and during the past 20 years. The interest in studies on the course of affective disorders has greatly increased as a spin-off of the introduction of long-term medication and prophylaxis. From the therapeutic point of view, two questions arise: which patients should be selected for longterm medication, considering the relapse risk, and how long should such longterm medication be maintained, considering recurrence and the possibility of a burning out of the disorder in old age. Furthermore, the risks of long-term medication have to be weighed against the risks of nonrecovery or chronicity, social consequences of the disorder, and increased mortality or suicide.

Keywords

Affective Disorder Suicide Rate Unipolar Depression Depressive Illness Bipolar Affective Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achté KA (1973) Depression und Suizid. Einige prognostische Untersuchungen. Therapiewoche 23: 4368–4379Google Scholar
  2. Akiskal HS (1982) Factors associated with incomplete recovery in primary depressive illness. J Clin Psychiatry 43: 266–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akiskal HS, Djenderedjian AH, Rosenthal RH, Khani MK (1977) Cyclothymic disorder: validating criteria for inclusion in the bipolar affective group. Am J Psychiatry 134: 1227–1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akiskal HS, Bitar AH, Puzantian VR, Rosenthal TL, Walker PW (1978) The nosological status of neurotic depression. A prospective three-to four-year follow-up examination in light of the primary-secondary and unipolar-bipolar dichotomies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 756–766Google Scholar
  5. Akiskal HS, Walker P, Puzantian VR, King D, Rosenthal TL, Dranon M (1983) Bipolar outcome in the course of depressive illness. Phenomenologic, familial, and pharmacologic predictors. J Affective Disord 5: 115–128Google Scholar
  6. Angst J (1966) Zur Aetiologie und Nosologie endogener depressiver Psychosen. Eine genetische, soziologische und klinische Studie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York ( Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, Heft 112 )Google Scholar
  7. Angst J (1978) The course of affective disorders. II. Typology of bipolar manic-depressive illness. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 226: 65–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Angst J (1980 a) Verlauf unipolar depressiver, bipolar manisch-depressiver und schizo-affektiver Erkrankungen und Psychosen. Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Studie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 48: 3–30Google Scholar
  9. Angst J (1980b) Clinical typology of bipolar illness. In: Belmaker RH, van Praag HM (eds) Mania — an evolving concept. Spectrum, Jamaica New York, pp 61–76Google Scholar
  10. Angst J (1981) Clinical indications for a prophylactic treatment of depression. In: Mendlewicz J, Coppen A, van Praag HM (eds) Depressive illness — biological and psychopharmacological issues. Symposium Amsterdam 1980 (Advances in biological psychiatry, vol 7 ). Karger, Basel, pp 218–229Google Scholar
  11. Angst J (1984) A prospective study on the course of affective disorders. In: Mood disorders. Pharmacologic prevention of recurrences. Consensus Development Conference. National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC, pp 23–26Google Scholar
  12. Angst J (1985a) Verlauf und Ausgang affektiver und schizo-affektiver Erkrankungen. 2. Weitbrecht-Symposium, BonnGoogle Scholar
  13. Angst J (1985b) Switch from depression to mania — a record study over decades between 1920 and 1982. Psychopathology 18: 140–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Angst J, Frey R (1976) Die Prognose endogener Depressionen jenseits des 40. Lebensjahres. Zentralbl Ges Neurol Psychiatr 215: 235Google Scholar
  15. Angst J, Weis P (1967) Periodicity of depressive psychoses. In: Brill H, Cole JO, Deniker P, Hippius H, Bradley PB (eds) Neuro-psychopharmacology. Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-PsychopharmacologicumGoogle Scholar
  16. Washington, DC, 1966. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam New York, pp 703–710 ( International Congress Series, No. 129 )Google Scholar
  17. Angst J, Grof P, Hippius H, Poeldinger W, Weis P (1968) La psychose maniaco-dépressive est-elle périodique ou intermittente? Dans: de Ajuriaguerra J (ed) Cycles biologiques et psychiatrie. Symposium Bel-Air III, Genève 1967. Georg, Genève, Masson, Paris, pp 339–351Google Scholar
  18. Angst J, Baastrup PC, Grof P, Hippius H, Pöldinger W, Varga E, Weis P, Wyss F (1973a) Statistische Aspekte des Beginns und Verlaufs schizophrener Psychosen. In: Huber G (ed) Verlauf und Ausgang schizophrener Erkrankungen. 2. Weissenauer Schizophrenie-Symposion. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, pp 67–78Google Scholar
  19. Angst J, Baastrup PC, Grof P, Hippius H, Pöldinger W, Weis P (1973b) The course of mono-polar depression and bipolar psychoses. Psychiatr Neurol Neurochir 76: 489–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Angst J, Felder W, Frey R, Stassen HH (1978) The course of affective disorders. I. Change of diagnosis of monopolar, unipolar, and bipolar illness. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 226: 57–64Google Scholar
  21. Angst J, Dobler-Mikola A, Hagnell O (1985) How many, and which patients with affective disorders need long-term maintenance therapy? In: Costa E et al. (eds) Chronic treatments in neuropsychiatry. Raven Press, New York, pp 169–172Google Scholar
  22. Annesley PT (1961) Psychiatric illness in adolescence: presentation and prognosis. J Ment Sci 107: 268–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Anthony J, Scott P (1960) Manic-depressive psychosis in childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1: 52–72Google Scholar
  24. Astrup C, Fossum A, Holmboe R (1959) A follow-up study of 270 patients with acute affective psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl 135]: 1–65Google Scholar
  25. Avery D, Winokur G (1976) Mortality in depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressants. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 1029–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Baastrup PC, Poulsen JC, Schou M, Thomsen K, Amdisen A (1970) Prophylactic lithium: double-blind discontinuation in manic-depressive and recurrent-depressive disorders. Lancet II: 326–330Google Scholar
  27. Baldwin JA (1980) Schizophrenia and physical disease: a preliminary analysis of the data from the Oxford Record Linkage Study. In: Hemmings G (ed) Biochemistry of schizophrenia and addiction. In search of a common factor. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 297–318Google Scholar
  28. Ballenger JC, Reus VI, Post RM (1982) The “atypical” clinical picture of adolescent mania. Am J Psychiatry 139: 602–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Baron M, Risch N, Mendlewicz J (1983) Age at onset in bipolar-related major affective illness: clinical and genetic implications. J Psychiatr Res 17: 5–18Google Scholar
  30. Barthomeuf (1888) Considérations sur les folies intermittentes. Thèse Médicale, ParisGoogle Scholar
  31. Berg I, Hullin R, Alropp M, O’Brien P, MacDonald R (1974) Bipolar manic depressive psychosis in early adolescence: a case report. Br J Psychiatry 125: 416–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Berger H (1909) Klinische Beiträge zur Melancholie-Frage. Monatsschr Psychiatr Neurol 26: 95–112Google Scholar
  33. Berkhan (1863) Irresein bei Kindern. Correspondenzbl Dtsch Gesellsch Psychiatr 10: 65–76Google Scholar
  34. Berti Ceroni G, Neri C, Pezzoli A (1984) Chronicity in major depression. A naturalistic prospective study. J Affective Disord 7: 123–132Google Scholar
  35. Bland RC, Orn H (1982) Course and outcome in affective disorders. Can J Psychiatry 27: 573–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Boeters U (1980) Zum Verlauf jugendlicher Manien. In: Schimmelpenning GW (ed) Psychiatrische Verlaufsforschung. Methoden und Ergebnisse. Huber, Bern Stuttgart Wien, pp 195–207Google Scholar
  37. Bond ED, Braceland FJ (1937) Prognosis in mental disease. The use of one-page abstracts. Am J Psychiatry 94: 263–274Google Scholar
  38. Bornstein PE, Clayton PJ, Halikas JA et al. (1973) The depression of widowhood after thirteen months. Br J Psychiatry 122: 561–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Boyd JH, Weissman MM (1981) Epidemiology of affective disorders. A reexamination and future directions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 1039–1046Google Scholar
  40. Bratfos O, Haug JO (1968) Course of manic-depressive psychosis. A follow-up investigation of 215 patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 44: 89–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Breitenmoser R (1971) Zum Verlauf depressiver Psychosen. Med Diss, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  42. Brockington IF, Heizer JE, Hillier VF, Francis AF (1982) Definitions of depression: concordance and prediction of outcome. Am J Psychiatry 139: 1022–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Brown GW, Harris T (1978) Social origins of depression. A study of psychiatric disorder in women. Tavistock, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Buerger-Prinz H (1961) Probleme der phasischen Psychosen. Enke, Stuttgart ( Forum der Psychiatrie, No. 2 )Google Scholar
  45. Bunney WE Jr, Murphy DL, Goodwin FK, Borge GF (1972) The “switch process” in manic-depressive illness. I. A systematic study of sequential behavioral changes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 27: 295–302Google Scholar
  46. Campbell JD (1952) Manic depressive psychosis in children. Report of 18 cases. J Nery Ment Dis 116: 424–439Google Scholar
  47. Carlson GA, Strober M (1978a) Affective disorder in adolescence: issues in misdiagnosis. J Clin Psychiatry 39: 59, 63–66Google Scholar
  48. Carlson GA, Strober M (1978b) Manic-depressive illness in early adolescence. A study of clinical and diagnostic characteristics in six cases. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 17: 138–153Google Scholar
  49. Carlson GA, Strober M (1979) Affective disorders in adolescence. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2: 511–526Google Scholar
  50. Carlson GA, Kotin J, Davenport JB, Adland M (1974) Follow-up of 53 bipolar manic-depressive patients. Br J Psychiatry 124: 134–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Carlson GA, Davenport YB, Jamison K (1977) A comparison of outcome in adolescent and late onset bipolar manic depressive illness. Am J Psychiatry 134: 919–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Carter AB (1942) The prognostic factor of adolescent psychoses. J Ment Sci 88: 31–81Google Scholar
  53. Cassano GB, Maggini C, Akiskal HS (1983) Short-term, subchronic, and chronic sequelae of affective disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 6: 55–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Chess S, Thomas A, Hassibi M (1983) Depression in childhood and adolescence. A prospective study of six cases. J Nery Ment Dis 171: 411–420Google Scholar
  55. Ciompi L (1973) Allgemeine Depressionsprobleme im Lichte von Verlaufsforschungen bis ins Alter. Z Gerontol 6: 400–408Google Scholar
  56. Ciompi L, Medvecka J (1976) Etude comparative de la mortalité à long terme dans les maladies mentales. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 118: 111–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Clancy J, Tsuang MT, Norton B, Winokur G (1974) The Iowa 500: a comprehensive study of mania, depression and schizophrenia. J Iowa Med Soc 64: 394–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Clayton PJ (1978) Bipolar affective disorder — techniques and results of treatment. Am J Psychother 32: 81–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Clayton PJ (1980) Discussion of Klerman’s paper. (Klerman GJ: Long-term outcome of neurotic depressions) In: Sells SB, Crandall R, Roff M, Strauss JS, Pollin W (eds) Human functioning in longitudinal perspective. Studies of normal and psychopathic populations. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore London, pp 70–73Google Scholar
  60. Clayton PJ (1981) The epidemiology of bipolar affective disorder. Compr Psychiatry 22: 31–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Clayton PJ (1983a) The prevalence and course of the affective disorders. In: Davis JM, Maas JW (eds) The affective disorders. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp 193–201Google Scholar
  62. Clayton PJ (1983b) Epidemiologic and risk factors in suicide. In: Grinspoon L (ed) Psy- chiatry update, vol II. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp 428–434Google Scholar
  63. Clayton PJ (1984) Overview of recurrent mood disorders: definitions and natural course. In: Mood disorders. Pharmacologic prevention of recurrences. Consensus Development Conference, National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC, pp 16–22Google Scholar
  64. Clayton PJ, Pitts FN Jr, Winokur G (1965) Affective disorder. IV. Mania. Compr Psychiatry 6: 313–322Google Scholar
  65. Cole M, Hicking T (1976) Frequency and significance of minor organic signs in elderly depressives. Can Psychiatr Ass J 21: 7–12Google Scholar
  66. Conrad K (1958) Die beginnende Schizophrenie. Versuch einer Gestaltanalyse des Wahns. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  67. Coryell W, Norten S (1980) Mania during adolescence. The pathoplastic significance of age. J Nery Ment Dis 168: 611–613Google Scholar
  68. Coryell W, Winokur G (1980) Diagnosis, family, and follow-up studies. In: Belmaker HJ, van Praag HM (eds) Mania — an evolving concept. Spectrum, Jamaica New York, pp 25–41Google Scholar
  69. Coryell W, Winokur G (1982) Course and outcome. In: Paykel ES (ed) Handbook of affective disorders. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London Melbourne New York, pp 93–106Google Scholar
  70. Coryell W, Noyes R, Clancy J (1983) Panic disorder and primary unipolar depression. J Affective Disord 5: 311–317Google Scholar
  71. Court JH (1968) Manic-depressive psychosis: an alternative conceptual model. Br J Psychiatry 114: 1523–1530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Crowe RR, Smouse PE (1977) The genetic implications of age-dependent penetrance in manic-depressive illness. J Psychiatr Res 13: 273–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. de la Cruz N (1972) Manisch-depressives Kranksein bei Jugendlichen zwischen 16 und 19 Jahren. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 110: 279–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Cutler NR, Post RM (1982) Life course of illness in untreated manic-depressive patients. Compr Psychiatry 23: 101–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. D’Elia G, Perris C (1969) Selbstmordversuche im Laufe unipolarer und bipolarer Depressionen. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 212: 339–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Derby IM (1933) Manic-depressive “exhaustion” deaths. Psychiatr Q 7: 435–449Google Scholar
  77. Dunn G, Skuse D (1981) The natural history of depression in general practice: stochastic models. Psychol Med 11: 755–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Dunner DL, Fleiss JL, Fieve RR (1976) The course of development of mania in patients with recurrent depression. Am J Psychiatry 133: 905–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Dussik KT (1934) Manisch-depressive Psychose bei einem elfjährigen Kind. Psychiatr Neurol Wochenschr 36: 305–308Google Scholar
  80. Egeland JA, Hostetter AM (1983) Amish Study I: Affective disorders among the Amish 1976–1980. Am J Psychiatry 140: 56–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Emmingshaus H (1887) Die psychischen Störungen des Kindesalters. Verlag der Laupp’schen Buchhandlung, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  82. Endicott J, Andreasen N, Clayton PJ (1980) Bipolar II: combine or keep separate. Sci Proc of APA Convention, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  83. van Erp Taalmann Kip MJ (1898) Akute Manie. Allg Z Psychiatr 54: 119–135Google Scholar
  84. Evans NJR, Whitlock FA (1983) Mortality and late-onset affective disorder. J Affective Disord 5: 297–304Google Scholar
  85. Evans NJR, Baldwin JA, Gath D (1974) The incidence of cancer among inpatients with affective disorders. Br J Psychiatry 124: 518–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Falret JP (1851) De la folie circulaire ou forme de maladie mentale caracterisée par l’alternative régulière de la manie et de la mélancolie. Bull Acad Med (Paris)Google Scholar
  87. Fleiss JL, Dunner DL, Stallone F, Fieve RR (1976) The life table: a method for analyzing longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 107–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Fleiss JL, Prien RF, Dunner DL, Fieve RR (1978) Actuarial studies of the course of manic-depressive illness. Compr Psychiatry 19: 355–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Forssman H, Jansson B (1960) Follow-up study of 849 men admitted for mental disorders to the psychiatric ward of a general hospital. Acta Psychiatr Scand 35: 57–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Fowler RC, Tsuang MT, Kronfol Z (1979) Communication of suicidal intent and suicide in unipolar depression. A forty-year follow-up. J Affective Disord 1: 219–225Google Scholar
  91. Frangos E, Athanassenas G, Tsitdourides S, Psilolignos P, Robos A, Katsanou N, Bulgaris C (1980) Seasonality of the episodes of recurrent affective psychoses: possible prophylactic interventions. J Affective Disord 2: 239–247Google Scholar
  92. Friedman RC, Hurt SW, Clarkin FJ, Corn R (1983) Primary and secondary affective disorders in adolescents and young adoults. Acta Psychiatr Scand 67: 226–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Friedmann M (1892) Über Nervosität und Psychosen im Kindesalter. MMW 39:359–361, 388–392Google Scholar
  94. Friedmann M (1909) Zur Kenntnis der affektiven Psychosen des Kindesalters, insbesondere der milderen Formen. Monatsschr Psychiatr Neurol 26: 36–52Google Scholar
  95. Fukuda K, Etoh T, Iwadate T, Ishii A (1983) The course and prognosis of manic-depressive psychosis: a quantitative analysis of episodes and intervals. Tohoku J Exp Med 139: 299–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Fuller RG (1935) What happens to mental patients after discharge from hospital. Psychiatr Q 9: 95–104Google Scholar
  97. Gangil OP, Kumar A, Yadav BS, Jain RK (1982) Family history of mental illness as a factor in relapse and non relapse of discharged functional psychotics. Indian J Psychiatry 24: 84–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Glassner B, Haldipur CV, Dessauersmith J (1979) Role loss and working-class manic depression. J Nerv Ment Dis 167: 530–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Glatzel J, Lungershausen E (1970) Phasenüberdauernde Befindlichkeitsstörungen bei cyclothymen Depressionen. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 213: 388–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Goodwin FK, Jamison KR (1984) The natural course of manic-depressive illness. In: Post RM, Ballenger JC (eds) The neurobiology of the mood disorders Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  101. Griesinger W (1845) Pathologie und Therapie der psychischen Krankheiten für Ärzte und Studierende, 1st edn. Krabbe, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  102. Grof P, Angst J, Haines T (1974) The clinical course of depression: practical issues. In: Angst J (ed) Classification and prediction of outcome of depression. Symposium, Schloss Reinhartshausen/Rhein 1973. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, pp 141–148 ( Symposia Medica Hoechst, No. 8 )Google Scholar
  103. Guze SB, Robins E (1970) Suicide and primary affective disorder. Br J Psychiatry 117: 437–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hagnell O, Lanke J, Rosman B (1981) Suicide rates in the Lundby study: mental illness as a risk factor for suicide. Neuropsychobiology 7: 248–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hassanyeh F, Davison K (1980) Bipolar affective psychosis with onset before age 16 years. Report of 10 cases. Br J Psychiatry 137: 530–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hastings DW (1958) Follow-up results in psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry 114: 1057–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Heimbuch RC, Matthysse S, Kidd KK (1980) Estimating age-of-onset distributions for disorders with variable onset. Am J Hum Genet 32: 564–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hinrichsen 0 (1898) Statistischer Beitrag zur Frage nach der Häufigkeit der einfachen akuten Manie im Verhältnis zu den periodischen Formen derselben. Allg Z Psychiatr 54: 786–805Google Scholar
  109. Hopkinson G (1963) The onset of affective illness. Psychiatr Neurol (Basel) 146: 133–140Google Scholar
  110. Hopkinson G, Ley P (1969) A genetic study of affective disorder. Br J Psychiatry 115: 917–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hornstra RK, Klassen D (1977) The course of depression. Compr Psychiatry 18: 119–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Horowitz HA (1977) Lithium and the treatment of adolescent manic-depressive illness. Dis Nerv Syst 38: 480–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. von Hösslin C (1909) Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Verlaufes und Ausganges des manisch-depressiven Irreseins. Zentralbl Nervenheilk Psychiatr 32: 823–829Google Scholar
  114. Huba GJ, Lawlor WG, Stallone F, Fieve RR (1976) The use of autocorrelation analysis in the longitudinal study of mood patterns in depressed patients. Br J Psychiatry 128: 146–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Huber G (1966) Reine Defektsyndrome und Basisstadien endogener Psychosen. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 34: 409–426Google Scholar
  116. Hudgens RW (1974) Psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  117. Huhn A, Pauly U (1973) Klinik, Verlauf und Prognose der Zyklothymie bei Jugendlichen. In: Kranz H, Heinrich K (eds) Chronische endogene Psychosen. 6. Bad Kreuznacher Symposium 1972. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 17–31Google Scholar
  118. Huston PE, Locher LM (1948a) Involutional psychosis. Course when untreated and when treated with electric shock. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 59: 385–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Huston PE, Locher LM (1948b) Manic-depressive psychosis. Course when treated and untreated with electric shock. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 60: 37–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Jacoby RJ (1981) Depression in the elderly. Br J Hosp Med (January): 40–47Google Scholar
  121. Janzarik W (1959) Dynamische Grundkonstellationen in endogenen Psychosen. Ein Beitrag zur Differentialtypologie der Wahnphänomene. Springer, Berlin Göttingen Heidelberg ( Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, Heft 86 )Google Scholar
  122. Johnson GFS, Hunt GE (1979) Onset of mania in bipolar manic-depressive patients. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 13: 57–61Google Scholar
  123. Johnson GFS, Leeman MM (1977) Onset of illness in bipolar manic-depressives and their affectively ill first-degree relatives. Biol Psychiatry 12: 733–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Jones BD, Steinberg S, Chouinard G (1984) Fast-cycling bipolar disorder induced by withdrawal from long-term treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. Am J Psychiatry 141: 108–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Joyce PR (1984) Age of onset in bipolar affective disorder and misdiagnosis as schizophrenia. Psychol Med 14: 145–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kasanin J (1931) The affective psychoses in children. Am J Psychiatry 10: 897–926Google Scholar
  127. Kasanin J, Kaufman MR (1929) A study of the functional psychoses in childhood. Am J Psychiatry 9: 307–384Google Scholar
  128. Kawashima K (1979) Clinical studies of depressive illness in old age. (Japanese with Engl. summary) Tokyo Jikeikai Med J 94: 365–376Google Scholar
  129. Kay DWK (1962) Outcome and cause of death in mental disorders of old age: a long-term follow-up of functional and organic psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand 38: 249–276Google Scholar
  130. Kay DWK, Bergmann K (1966) Physical disability and mental health in old age. A follow-up of a random sample of elderly people seen at home. J Psychosom Res 10: 3–12Google Scholar
  131. Kay DWK, Garside RF, Roy JR, Beamish P (1969) “Endogenous” and “neurotic” syndromes of depression: a 5- to 7-year follow-up of 104 cases. Br J Psychiatry 155:389–399Google Scholar
  132. Keller MB, Shapiro RW (1981) Major depressive disorder. Initial results from a one-year prospective naturalistic follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis 169: 761–768Google Scholar
  133. Keller MB, Shapiro RW (1982) “Double depression”: superimposition of acute depressive episodes on chronic depressive disorders. Am J Psychiatry 139: 438–442Google Scholar
  134. Keller MB, Shapiro RW, Lavori PW, Wolfe N ( 1982 a) Relapse in major depressive disorder. Analysis with the life table. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39: 911–915Google Scholar
  135. Keller MB, Shapiro RW, Lavori PW, Wolfe N (1982b) Recovery in major depressive disorder. Analysis with the life table and regression models. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39: 905–910Google Scholar
  136. Keller MB, Lavori PW, Lewis CE, Klerman GL (1983) Predictors of relapse in major depressive disorder. JAMA 250: 3299–3304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kendell RE (1985) The diagnosis of mania. J Affective Disord 8: 207–213Google Scholar
  138. Kerr TA, Schapira K, Roth M (1969) The relationship between premature death and affective disorders. Br J Psychiatry 115: 1277–1282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Kerr TA, Roth M, Schapira K, Gurney C (1972) The assessment and prediction of outcome in affective disorders. Br J Psychiatry 121: 167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kielholz P (1959) Klinik, Differentialdiagnostik und Therapie der depressiven Zustandsbilder. Documenta Geigy, Basel (Acta Psychosomatica No. 2 )Google Scholar
  141. Kimura S, Ohya D, Koh T, Iwamura H (1984) Course and prognosis of endogenous-phasic psychoses in adolescence. Psychopathology 17: 137–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. King LJ, Pittman GD (1969) A six-year follow-up study of sixty-five adolescent patients: predictive value of presenting clinical picture. Br J Psychiatry 115: 1437–1441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kinkelin M (1954) Verlauf und Prognose des manisch-depressiven Irreseins. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 73: 100–146Google Scholar
  144. Kirn L (1878) Die periodischen Psychosen; eine klinische Abhandlung. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  145. Klerman GL (1980) Long-term outcome of neurotic depressions. In: Sells SB, Crandall R, Roff M, Strauss JS, Pollin W (eds) Human functioning in longitudinal perspective. Studies of normal and psychopathic populations. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore London, pp 58–70Google Scholar
  146. Kovacs M, Rush AJ, Beck AT, Hollon SD (1981) Depressed outpatients treated with cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy, a one-year follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Kovacs M, Feinberg TL, Crouse-Novak MA, Paulauskas SL, Finkelstein R (1984a) Depressive disorders in childhood. I. A longitudinal prospective study of characteristics and recovery. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 229–237Google Scholar
  148. Kovacs M, Feinberg TL, Crouse-Novak MA, Paulauskas SL, Pollock M, Finkelstein R (1984b) Depressive disorders in childhood. II. A longitudinal study of the risk for a subsequent major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 643–649Google Scholar
  149. Kraepelin E (1889) Psychiatrie. Ein lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte, 3rd edn. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  150. Kraepelin E (1913) Das manisch-depressive Irresein. In: Psychiatrie. Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte, vol 3, part 2. Barth, Leipzig, pp 1183–1395Google Scholar
  151. Kraepelin E (1921) Manic-depressive insanity. In: Wolpert EA (ed) Manic-depressive illness. History of a syndrome. International Universities Press, New York 1977, pp 33–111Google Scholar
  152. von Krafft-Ebing R (1888) Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie auf klinischer Grundlage für praktische Ärzte und Studierende, 3rd edn. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  153. Krauthammer C, Klerman GL (1979) The epidemiology of mania. In: Shopsin B (ed) Manic illness. Raven Press, New York, pp 11–28Google Scholar
  154. Kreuser H (1900) Spätgenesungen bei Geisteskrankheiten. Allg Z Psychiatr 57: 771–813Google Scholar
  155. Kukopoulos A, Caliari B, Tundo A, Minnai G, Floris G, Reginaldi D, Tondo L (1983) Rapid cyclers, temperament, and antidepressants. Compr Psychiatry 24: 249–258Google Scholar
  156. Lackmann W (1906) Über manisch-depressives Irresein im Kindesalter. Med Diss, ErlangenGoogle Scholar
  157. Lambranzi, Perazzolo (1906) Le recidive nella freniatria manica-depressiva. Giorn Psich Clin Tec ManGoogle Scholar
  158. Landolt AB (1957) Follow-up studies on circular manic-depressive reactions occurring in the young. Bull NY Acad Med 33: 65–73Google Scholar
  159. Langelüddeke A (1941) Über Lebenserwartung und Rückfallhäufigkeit bei Manisch-Depressiven. Z Psych Hygiene 14: 1–15Google Scholar
  160. Lauter H (1969) Phasenüberdauernder Persönlichkeitswandel und persistierende Symptome bei der endogenen Depression. In: Hippius H, Selbach H (eds) Das depressive Syndrom. Int. Symposion, Berlin 1968. Urban und Schwarzenberg, München Berlin Wien, pp 128–132Google Scholar
  161. Lavori PW, Keller MB (1983) Application of survival analysis to psychiatric research. In: Gibbons RD, Dysken MW (eds) Statistical and methodological advances in psychiatric research. Spectrum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  162. Lavori PW, Keller MB, Klerman GL (1984) Relapse in affective disorders: a reanalysis of the literature using life table methods. J Psychiatr Res 18: 13–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Leonhard K, Korff I, Schulz H (1962) Die Temperamente in den Familien der monopolaren und bipolaren phasischen Psychosen. Psychiatr Neurol (Basel) 143: 416–434Google Scholar
  164. Lerer B, Birmacher B, Ebstein RP, Belmaker RH (1980) 48-hour depressive cycling induced by antidepressant. Br J Psychiatry 137: 183–185Google Scholar
  165. Levin (1890) Über periodische Manie. Med Diss, StrassbourgGoogle Scholar
  166. Lewinsohn PM, Fenn DS, Stanton AK, Franklin J (unpublished) Relationship of age at onset to duration of episode in unipolar depressionGoogle Scholar
  167. Lewis JL, Winokur G (1982) The induction of mania. A natural history study with controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39: 303–306Google Scholar
  168. Lilliker SL (1980) Prevalence of diabetes in a manic-depressive population. Compr Psychiatry 21: 270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Lönnqvist J, Koskenvuo M, Kapiro J, Langinvainio H (1983) The mortality in psychiatric disorders: a three-year prospective follow-up study. In: Soubrier JP, Vedrinne J (eds) Dépression et suicide. Aspects médicaux, psychologiques et socio-culturels. C. R. de la XIe réunion de l’association internationale pour la prévention du suicide, Paris 1981. Pergamon Press, Paris Oxford New York Toronto Sidney Frankfurt, pp 198–203Google Scholar
  170. Loranger AW, Levine PM (1978) Age at onset of bipolar affective illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 1345–1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Luce GG (1973) Body time — the natural rhythms of the body. Paladin, St Albans (cit: Aretaeus, c. 600 BC)Google Scholar
  172. Lundquist G (1945) Prognosis and course in manic-depressive psychoses: a follow-up study of 319 first admissions. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl 35]: 1–96Google Scholar
  173. MacDonald JB (1918) Prognosis in manic-depressive insanity. J Nerv Ment Dis 47: 20–30Google Scholar
  174. MacVane JR, Lange JD, Brown WA, Zayat M (1978) Psychological functioning of bipolar manic-depressives in remission. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 1351–1354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Malzberg B (1929) A statistical study of the factor of age in the manic-depressive psychoses. Psychiatr Q 3: 590–604Google Scholar
  176. Mannheimer (1899) Les troubles mentaux de l’enfance. ParisGoogle Scholar
  177. Matussek P, Halbach A, Troeger U (1965) Endogene Depression. Eine statistische Untersuchung unbehandelter Fälle. Urban und Schwarzenberg, München BerlinGoogle Scholar
  178. Mauz F (1930) Die Prognostik der endogenen Psychosen. Thieme, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  179. Mayser (1899) Beitrag zur Lehre von der Manie. (Sitzungsbericht) Arch Psychiatr 31: 500–502Google Scholar
  180. McHarg JF (1954) Mania in childhood. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 72: 531–539Google Scholar
  181. Mendel E (1881) Die Manie. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Wien LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  182. Mendlewicz J, Fieve RR, Rainer JD, Fleiss JL (1972) Manic-depressive illness: a comparative study of patients with and without a family history. Br J Psychiatry 120: 523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Merikangas KR, Bromet EJ, Spiker DG (1983) Assortative mating, social adjustment, and course of illness in primary affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40: 795–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Meyer L (1874) fiber zirkuläre Geisteskrankheiten. Arch Psychiatr 4:139–158Google Scholar
  185. Milenkov K, Apostolov W (1969) Zur Frage der chronischen Verläufe bei Zyklophrenie. (Bulgarisch) Bull NIINP Sofia 13: 81–86Google Scholar
  186. Mirin SM, Schatzberg AF, Creasey DE (1981) Hypomania and mania after withdrawal of tricyclic antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry 138: 87–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Mitchell SW (1897) An analysis of 3000 cases of melancholia. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 12: 480–487Google Scholar
  188. Morrison JR, Winokur G, Crowe R, Clancy J (1973) The Iowa 500: The first follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry 29: 678–682Google Scholar
  189. Murphy E (1983) The prognosis of depression in old age. Br J Psychiatry 142: 111–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Murphy GE, Woodruff RA, Herjanic M (1974a) The validation of specific diagnostic criteria for primary affective disorder by means of a blind five year follow-up. J Psychiatr Res 10: 321–322Google Scholar
  191. Murphy GE, Woodruff RA Jr, Herjanic M, Fischer JR (1974b) Validity of the diagnosis of primary affective disorder. A prospective study with a five-year follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry 30: 751–756Google Scholar
  192. Murphy GE, Woodruff RA Jr, Herjanic M, Super G (1974c) Variability of the clinical course of primary affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 30: 757–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Myers JK, Weissman MM, Tischler GL, Holzer CE III, Leaf PJ, Orvaschel H, Anthony JC, Boyd JH, Burke JD Jr, Kramer M, Stoltzman R (1984) Six-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in three communities: 1980–1982. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 959–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Ganguli H, Ajmany S, Boral GC, Gosh A, Sarkar S (1978) The natural history of mental disorders in a rural community. A longitudinal field-survey. Indian J Psychiatry 21: 390–396Google Scholar
  195. Nasr S, Altman EG, Meltzer HY (1981) Concordance of atopic and affective disorders. J Affective Disord 3: 291–296Google Scholar
  196. Nitsche P (1910) Über chronisch-manische Zustände. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Lehre von den krankhaften Persönlichkeiten. Allg Z Psychiatr 67: 36–133Google Scholar
  197. Nöthig V, Jerbic B, Baldauf V (1973) Analysis of manic-depressive psychoses treated in the last five years (1968–1972). Abstract 3rd Yugoslav Psychopharmacol Symposium, Opatija, p 176Google Scholar
  198. Nuller YL, Kalinin OM, Rubtsova SK (1972) The use of factor analysis for the study of the course of manic-depressive psychosis. Zh Nevropathol Psikhiatr 72: 548–554Google Scholar
  199. Nunn CMH (1979) Mixed affective states and the natural history of manic-depressive psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 134: 153–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Olsen T (1961) Follow-up study of manic-depressive patients whose first attack occured before the age of 19. In: Kristiansen ES (ed) Depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 162: 45–51Google Scholar
  201. Oltman JE, Friedman S (1962) Life cycles in patients with manic-depressive psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 119: 174–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Parker G, Walter S (1982) Seasonal variation in depressive disorders and suicidal deaths in New South Wales. Br J Psychiatry 140: 626–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Paskind HA (1930) Manic-depressive psychosis as seen in private praxis. Sex distribution and age incidence of first attacks. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 23: 152–158Google Scholar
  204. Paykel ES, Klerman GL, Prusoff BA (1974) Prognosis of depression and the endogenous-neurotic distinction. Psychol Med 4: 57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Peley D, Vargha M (1974) Veränderungen im Verlauf manisch-depressiver Psychosen. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) 26: 395–399Google Scholar
  206. Perris C (1966) A study of bipolar (manic-depressive) and unipolar recurrent depressive psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl 1941: 1–189Google Scholar
  207. Perris C (1968) The course of depressive psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand 44: 238–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Perris C (1969) The separation of bipolar (manic-depressive) from unipolar recurrent depressive psychoses. Behav Neuropsychiatry 1: 17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Peselow ED, Dunner DL, Fieve RR, Deutsch SI, Rubinstein ME (1982) Age of onset of affective illness. Psychiatr Clin (Basel) 15: 124–132Google Scholar
  210. Petterson U (1977) Manic-depressive illness. A clinical, social and genetic study. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl 269]Google Scholar
  211. Pilez A (1901) Die periodischen Geistesstörungen. Eine klinische Studie.G Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  212. Pollock HM (1931a) Recurrence of attacks in manic-depressive psychoses. Am J Psychiatry 11: 567–574Google Scholar
  213. Pollock HM (1931b) Recurrence of attacks in manic-depressive psychoses. In: White WA, Davis TK, Frantz AM (eds) Manic-depressive psychosis. Williams and Willkins, Baltimore, pp 668–675Google Scholar
  214. Poort R (1945) Catamnestic investigations on manic-depressive psychoses with special reference to the prognosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 20: 59–74Google Scholar
  215. Post F (1962) The significance of affective symptoms in old age. A follow-up study of one hundred patients. Oxford University Press, London New York Toronto ( Maudsley Monographs, No. 10 )Google Scholar
  216. Post F (1972) The management and nature of depressive illnesses in late life: a follow-through study. Br J Psychiatry 121: 393–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Poznanski EO, Krahenbuhl V, Zrull JP (1976) Childhood depression. A longitudinal perspective. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 15: 491–501Google Scholar
  218. Prien RF, Klett J, Caffey EM (1974) Lithium prophylaxis in recurrent affective illness. Am J Psychiatry 131: 198–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Puig-Antich J, Gittelman R (1982) Depression in childhood and adolescence. In: Paykel ES (ed) The handbook of affective disorders. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London Melbourne New York, pp 379–392Google Scholar
  220. Rao AV, Nammalvar N (1977) The course and outcome in depressive illness. A follow-up study of 122 cases in Madurai, India. Br J Psychiatry 130: 392–396Google Scholar
  221. Refsum HE, Astrup C (1980) Reactive depression: a follow-up. Neuropsychobiology 6: 79–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Rehm O (1907) Verlaufsformen des manisch-depressiven Irreseins. Centralbl Nervenheilk Psychiatr 30: 480–481Google Scholar
  223. Rehm O (1919) Das manisch melancholische Irresein. ( Manisch-depressives Irresein Kraepelin) Springer, Berlin (Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Neurologie and Psychiatrie, vol 17 )Google Scholar
  224. Rennie TAC (1942) Prognosis in manic-depressive psychoses. Am J Psychiatry 98: 801–814Google Scholar
  225. Rice KK (1944) Clinical, technical and occasional notes: Regular forty to fifty day cycle of psychotic behavior in a 14 year old boy. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 51: 478–480Google Scholar
  226. Rihmer Z (1980) Season of birth and season of hospital admission in bipolar depressed female patients. Psychiatry Res 3: 247–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Robins E, Guze SB (1972) Classification of affective disorders: the primary-secondary, the endogenous-reactive, and the neurotic-psychotic concepts. In: Williams TA, Katz MM, Shield JA Jr (eds) Recent advances in the psychobiology of the depressive illnesses. Proceedings of a Workshop, Clinical Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs, NIMH, Williamsburg, Virgnia 1969. DHEW Publ. No (HSM) 70–9053. Washington, DC, pp 283–293Google Scholar
  228. Robins LN, Helzer JE, Weissman MM, Orvaschel H, Gruenberg E, Burke JD Jr, Regier DA (1984) Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 949–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Rosen LN, Rosenthal NE, van Dusen PH, Dunner DL, Fieve RR (1983) Age at onset and number of psychotic symptoms in bipolar I and schizoaffective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 140: 1523–1524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Rosenthal NE, Lewy AJ, Wehr TA, Kern HE, Goodwin FK (1983) Seasonal cycling in a bipolar patient. Psychiatry Res 8: 25–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Gillin JC, Lewy AJ, Goodwin FK, Davenport Y, Mueller PS, Newsome DA, Wehr TA (1984) Seasonal affective disorder. A descritpion of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 72–80Google Scholar
  232. Roth M, Kay DWK (1956) Affective disorder arising in the senium. II: Physical disability as an aetiological factor. J Ment Sci 102: 141–150Google Scholar
  233. Saiz G (1907) Untersuchungen über die Ätiologie der Manie, der periodischen Manie und des zirkulären Irreseins, nebst Besprechung einzelner Krankheitssymptome. Karger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  234. Saran BM (1971) The course of recurrent depressive illness in selected patients from a defined population. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 5: 119–131Google Scholar
  235. Schapira K, Roth M, Kerr TA, Gurney C (1972) The prognosis of affective disorders: the differentiation of anxiety states from depressive illnesses. Br J Psychiatry 121: 175–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Schipkowensky N, Milenkow K (1970) Zur Epidemiologie, Ätiologie und Prophylaxe der chronischen Zyklophrenie. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 4: 117–153Google Scholar
  237. Schulz B (1949) Sterblichkeit endogen Geisteskranker und ihrer Eltern. Z Menschl Vererbungs Konstitutionslehre 29: 338–367Google Scholar
  238. Shobe FO, Brion P (1971) Long-term prognosis in manic-depressive illness: a follow-up investigation of ill patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 24: 334–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Shulman K, Post F (1980) Bipolar affective disorder in old age. Br J Psychiatry 136: 26–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Siris SG, Chertoff HR, Perel JM (1979) Rapid-cycling affective disorder during imipramine treatment: a case report. Am J Psychiatry 136: 341–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Slater E (1938a) Zur Periodik des manisch-depressiven Irreseins. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatr 162: 794–801Google Scholar
  242. Slater E (1938b) Zur Erbpathologie des manisch-depressiven Irreseins. Die Eltern und Kinder von Manisch-Depressiven. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatr 163: 1–47Google Scholar
  243. Smeraldi E, Negri F, Melica AM (1977) A genetic study of affective disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 56: 382–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Stallone F, Dunner DL, Ahearn J, Fieve RR (1980) Statistical predictions of suicide in depressives. Compr Psychiatry 21: 381–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Steen RR (1933) Prognosis in manic-depressive psychoses. Psychiatr Q 7: 419–429Google Scholar
  246. Steiner J (1873) Compendium der Kinderkrankheiten für Studierende und Ärzte, 2nd edn. Vogel, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  247. Stenstedt A (1952) A study in manic-depressive psychosis: clinical, social, and genetic investigations. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl 791: 1–112Google Scholar
  248. Stenstedt A (1959) Involutional melancholia. An etiologic, clinical and social study of endogenous depression in later life, with special reference to genetic factors. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl 127]: 5–68Google Scholar
  249. Stransky E (1911) Das manisch-depressive Irresein. Deuticke, Leipzig WienGoogle Scholar
  250. Supprian U (1973) Perioden im Ablauf phasischer Psychosen. Therapiewoche 23 /46: 2–5Google Scholar
  251. Supprian U (1975a) Ein theoretisches Modell für den Gesamtablauf der manisch-depressiven Psychosen. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 43: 358–379Google Scholar
  252. Supprian U (1975b) Über eine strenge Periodizität im Ablauf einer manisch-depressiven Psychose. Nervenarzt 46: 440 146Google Scholar
  253. Supprian U (1975c) Über die chronopathologische Struktur einiger langer Katamnesen bei manisch-depressiver Erkrankung. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 43: 575–601Google Scholar
  254. Supprian U (1977) Verlaufsstudien an einer phasischen Psychose. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 45: 596–614Google Scholar
  255. Swift HM (1907) The prognosis of recurrent insanity of the manic-depressive type. Am J Insanity 64: 311–326Google Scholar
  256. Taschev T (1965) Statistisches über die Melancholie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 33: 25–36Google Scholar
  257. Taschev T, Roglev M (1973) Das Schicksal der Melancholiker im fortgeschrittenen Alter. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 217: 377–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Taylor MA, Abrams R (1973) Manic states. A genetic study of early and late onset affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 28: 656–658Google Scholar
  259. Taylor MA, Abrams R (1981) Early-and late-onset bipolar illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 58–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Till E, Vuckovik S (1970) Über den Einfluß der thymoleptischen Behandlung auf den Verlauf endogener Depressionen. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 4: 210–219Google Scholar
  261. Tondo L, Laddomada P, Serra G, Minnai G, Kukopulos A (1981) Rapid cyclers and antidepressants. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 16: 119–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Tsuang MT, Winokur G (1974) Bipolar primary affective disorder. J Oper Psychiatry 6: 47–53Google Scholar
  263. Tsuang MT, Woolson RF (1977) Mortality in patients with schizophrenia, mania, depression and surgical conditions: a comparison with general population mortality. Br J Psychiatry 130: 162–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Tsuang MT, Woolson RF (1978) Excess mortality in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Do suicides and accidental deaths solely account for this excess? Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 1181–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Tsuang MT, Dempsey GM, Rauscher F (1976) A study of “atypical schizophrenia”: comparison with schizophrenia and affective disorder by sex, age of admission, precipitant, outcome, and family history. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 1157–1160Google Scholar
  266. Tsuang MT, Woolson RF, Fleming JA (1979) Long-term outcome of major psychoses. I. Schizophrenia and affective disorders compared with psychiatrically symptom-free surgical conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 1295–1301Google Scholar
  267. Tsuang MT, Woolson RF, Fleming JA (1980a) Causes of death in schizophrenia and manic-depression. Br J Psychiatry 136: 239–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Tsuang MT, Woolson RF, Fleming JA (1980b) Premature deaths in schizophrenia and affective disorders. An analysis of survival curves and variables affecting the shortened survival. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37: 979–983Google Scholar
  269. Umenhoff D (1963) Zur Prognose der manisch-depressiven Erkrankungen bei Jugendlichen. Med Diss, WürzburgGoogle Scholar
  270. Vedrani (1905) Alcuni casi di freniatria manica-depressiva. Giorn di Psich Clin Tecn Man Walker R (1907) Über manische and depressive Psychosen. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 42: 788–868Google Scholar
  271. Watts CAH (1956) The incidence and prognosis of endogenous depression. Br Med J I: 1392–1397Google Scholar
  272. Wehr TA, Goodwin FK (1979) Rapid cycling in manic-depressives induced by tricyclic antidepressants. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 555–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Weinberg WA, Brumback RA (1976) Mania in childhood. Case studies and literature review. Am J Dis Child 130: 380–385Google Scholar
  274. Weissman MM, Prusoff BA, Klerman GL (1978) Personality and the prediction of long term outcome of depression. Am J Psychiatry 135: 797–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Weissman MM, Klerman GL, Prusoff BA, Sholomskas D, Padian N (1981) Depressed outpatients. Results one year after treatment with drugs and/or interpersonal psychotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 51–55Google Scholar
  276. Weitbrecht HJ (1949) Zyklothymie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 17: 437–481Google Scholar
  277. Weitbrecht HJ (1961) Endogene phasische Psychosen. Symptombilder and Verläufe. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 29: 129–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Weitbrecht HJ (1967) Die chronische Depression. Wien Z Nervenheilk 24: 265–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Weizman A, Weizman R, Tyano S, Wijsenbeek H (1979) Bipolar depression (manic-depressive disease) in early adolescence. Adolescence 14: 617–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Wertham FI (1929a) A group of benign chronic psychoses: prolonged manic excitements. With a statistical study of age, duration and frequency in 2000 manic attacks. Am J Psychiatry 9: 17–78Google Scholar
  281. Wertham FI (1929b) Die klinische Kerngruppe der chronischen Manie. Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 121: 770–779Google Scholar
  282. White JH, O’Shanick G (1977) Juvenile manic-depressive illness. Am J Psychiatry 134: 1035–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Winokur G (1970) The natural history of the affective disorders (manias and depression). Se-min Psychiatry 2: 451–463Google Scholar
  284. Winokur G (1975) The Iowa 500: heterogeneity and course in manic-depressive illness (bipolar). Compr Psychiatry 16: 125–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Winokur G, Clayton PJ (1967) Family history studies. I. Two types of affective disorders separated according to genetic and clinical factors. In: Wortis J (ed) Recent advances in biological psychiatry, vol 9. Plenum Press, New York, pp 35–50Google Scholar
  286. Winokur G, Morrison J (1973) The Iowa 500: follow-up of 225 depressives. Br J Psychiatry 123: 543–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Winokur G, Clayton PJ, Reich T (1969) Manic depressive illness. C. V. Mosby, Saint LouisGoogle Scholar
  288. Woodruff RA, Guze SB, Clayton PJ (1971) Unipolar and bipolar primary affective disorder. Br J Psychiatry 119: 33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. World Health Organization (1979) Schizophrenia. An international follow-up study. Wiley, Chichester New York Brisbane TorontoGoogle Scholar
  290. Zeh W (1956) Zur Psychopathologie der zyklothymen Manie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 24: 149–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Zeller E (1844) Bericht über die Wirksamkeit der Heilanstalt Winnenthal. Allg Z Psychiatr 1: 1–79Google Scholar
  292. Zhenyi X, Mingdao Z, Heqin Y (1980) Affective psychosis. A follow-up, retrospective classification and heredofamilial study. Chin Med J (Peking) 93: 365–368Google Scholar
  293. Ziehen T (1896) Die Erkennung und Behandlung der Melancholie in der Praxis. Karl Mar-hold, HalleGoogle Scholar
  294. Ziehen T (1917) Die Geisteskrankheiten des Kindesalters einschließlich des Schwachsinns und der psychopathischen Konstitutionen. Reuter and Reichhard, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  295. Zilborg G (1941) A history of medical psychology. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  296. Zimmer (1899) Ein Fall von infantiler circulärer Psychose. Med Diss, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  297. Zis AP, Goodwin FK (1979) Major affective disorders as a recurrent illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 835–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Zis AP, Grof P, Webster M, Goodwin FK (1980) Prediction of relapse in recurrent affective disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull 16: 47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Ziskind E, Somerfeld-Ziskind E, Ziskind L (1945) Metrazol and electric convulsive therapy of the affective psychoses. A controlled series of observations covering a period of five years. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 53: 212–217Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychiatrische UniversitätsklinikZürich 8Germany

Personalised recommendations