Crops II pp 351-369 | Cite as

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

  • R. Alconero
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 6)


Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a domestic annual species in the family Asteraceae (Compositae) cultivated mainly for its fleshy leaves. It forms within the genus Lactuca a somewhat isolated genetic compatibility group with three wild species that also have nine pairs of chromosomes, L. serriola, L. saligna and L. virosa (Thompson et al. 1941; Thompson 1943). Its relationship with L. serriola appears to be very close, having morphologically identical chromosomes that may be largely homologous and with no apparent obstacles to gene flow between them. There are marked sterility barriers between L. saligna on one side and L. serriola and L. sativa on the other, but gene exchange is possible. The genetic relationship with L. virosa is more distant. There are clear differences between it and the three other species in chromosome morphology, and gene exchange is very difficult (Lindqvist 1960b).


Downy Mildew Naphthalene Acetic Acid Lactuca Sativa Lettuce Leaf Lettuce Cultivar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abawi GS, Robinson RW, Cobb AC, Shail JW (1980) Reaction of lettuce germplasm to artificial inoculation with Sclerotinia minor under greenhouse conditions. Plant Dis 64:668–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alconero R (1983) Regeneration of plants from cell suspension of Lactuca saligna, Lactuca sativa, and Lactuca serriola. HortSci 18:305–307Google Scholar
  3. Bannerot H, Boulidard L, Marrou J, Dutiel M (1969) Etude de l’hérédité de la tolérance au virus de la mosaïque de la laitue chez la varieté Gallega de envierno. Ann Phytopathol 1:219–226Google Scholar
  4. Bensink J (1958) Heading of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) as a morphogenetic effect of leaf growth. Proc 15th Int Hortic Congr, Nice, pp 470–475Google Scholar
  5. Berry SF, Lu DY, Pental D, Cocking EC (1982) Regeneration of plants from protoplasts of Lactuca sativa L. Z Pflanzenphysiol 108:31–38Google Scholar
  6. Bohn GW, Whitaker TW (1951) Recently introduced varieties of head lettuce and methods used in their development. US Dep Agric (USDA) Circular 881Google Scholar
  7. Bremer AH, Grana J (1935) Genetische Untersuchungen mit Salat II. Gartenbauwissenschaft 9:231–245Google Scholar
  8. Cox EF, Mee JMT (1976) A comparison of tipburn susceptibility in lettuce under field and glasshouse conditions. J Hortic Sci 51:117–122Google Scholar
  9. Crute IR (1984) The integrated use of genetic and chemical methods for control of lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae Regel). Crop Protect 3:223–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crute IR, Davis AA (1977) Specificity of Bremia lactucae from Lactuca sativa. Trans Br Mycol Soc 69:405–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crute IR, Johnson AG (1976) The genetic relationship between races of Bremia lactucae and cultivars of Lactuca sativa. Ann Appi Biol 83:125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickson MH (1963) Resistance to corky root rot in head lettuce. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 82:388–390Google Scholar
  13. Doerschung MR, Miller CO (1967) Chemical control of adventitious organ formation in Lactuca sativa expiants. Am J Bot 54:410–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dunn JA (1960) Varietal resistance of lettuce to attack by the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius (L). Ann Appi Biol 48:764–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Durst CE (1930) Inheritance in lettuce. Ill Agric Exp Stn Bull 356Google Scholar
  16. Eenink AH (1974) Resistance inLactuca against Bremia lactucae Regel. Euphytica 23:411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eenink AH (1976) Breeding research on lettuce in the Netherlands. Proc Eucarpia Meet Leafy vegetables, pp 78–83Google Scholar
  18. Eenink AH, Dieleman FL (1977) ScreeningLactuca for resistance to Myzus persicae. Neth J Plant Pathol 83:139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eenink AH, Groenwold R, Dieleman FL (1982) Resistance of lettuce (Lactuca) to the leaf aphid Nasonovia ribis nigri. 1. Transfer of resistance fromL. virosa to L. sativa by interspecific crosses and selection of resistant breeding lines. Euphytica 31:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Engler DE, Grogan RG (1983) Isolation, culture and regeneration of lettuce leaf mesophyll protoplasts. Plant Sci Lett 28:223–229Google Scholar
  21. Engler DE, Grogan RG (1984) Variation in lettuce plants regenerated from protoplasts. J Hered 75:426–430Google Scholar
  22. FAO (ed) (1985) FAO production yearbook Files. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferakova V (1977) The genusLactuca L. in Europe. Univ Komenskeho, Bratislava, 122 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension culture of soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50:151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Globerson D, Netzer D, Sachs J (1980) Wild lettuce as a source for improving cultivated lettuce. Proc Eucarpia Meet Leafy vegetables, pp 86–96Google Scholar
  26. Hall CB, Stall RE, Burdine HW (1971) Association ofPseudomonas marginalis with pink rib of lettuce. Proc Fla State Hortic Soc 84:163–165Google Scholar
  27. Jagger IC, Whitaker TW, Uselman J J, Owen WM (1941) The imperial strains of lettuce. US Dep Agric (USDA) Circular 596Google Scholar
  28. Kadkade P, O’Connor H J (1976) Interactive effects of growth regulators on organogenesis in lettuce tissue culture. Plant Physiol 57:75Google Scholar
  29. Kadkade P, Siebert M (1977) Phytoehrome-regulated organogenesis in lettuce tissué culture. Nature (London) 270:49–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kao KN (1977) Chromosomal behaviour in somatic hybrids of soybean-Nicotiana glauca. Mol Gen Genet 150:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kishaba AN, Whitaker TW, Vail PV, Toba HH (1973) Differential oviposition of cabbage loopers on lettuce. J Am Soc Hortici 98:367–370Google Scholar
  32. Koevary K, Rappaport L, Morris LL (1978) Tissue culture propagation of head lettuce. Hort Sci 13:39–41Google Scholar
  33. Lindqvist K (1960a) On the origin of cultivated lettuce. Hereditas 46:319–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lindqvist K (1960b) Inheritance studies in lettuce. Hereditas 46:387–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maxon Smith JW (1965) Breeding improved winter lettuce: a survey of possible parents. Exp Hortic 12:21–31Google Scholar
  36. Maxon Smith JW (1977) Recurring off-types in lettuce: their significance in plant breeding and seed production. Theor Appl Genet 50:79–87Google Scholar
  37. Maxon Smith JW (1980) Lettuce breeding at glasshouse. Crops Res Inst Proc Eucarpia Meet Leafy vegetables, pp 30–35Google Scholar
  38. McCollum GD (1953) Cytogenetic relationships of Lactuca serriola and L. sativa. MS Thesis, Washington State UnivGoogle Scholar
  39. Morris LL, Kader AA, Klaustermeyer JA, Cheyney CC (1978) Avoiding ethylene concentrations in harvested lettuce. Cal Agricic 32:14–15Google Scholar
  40. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for the rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 16:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Netherlands Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding (ed) (1985) Annu Rep 1984, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  42. Newton HC, Sequeira L (1972) Possible sources of resistance in lettuce to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Dis Rep 56:875–878Google Scholar
  43. Norwood JM, Crute IR (1985) A comparison of the susceptibility of lettuce cultivars to natural field and artificially induced laboratory infection with downy mildew, Bremia lactucae. Z Pflanzenziicht 95:63–73Google Scholar
  44. Norwood JM, Crute IR, Lebeda A (1981) The location and characteristics of novel sources of resistance to Bremia lactucae Regel (Powdery Mildew) in wild Lactuca L. species. Euphytica 30:659–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nothmann J, (1976) Morphology of head formation of cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Romana) 1. The process of hearting. Ann Bot (London) 40:1067–1072Google Scholar
  46. Pearson OH (1956) The nature of the rogue in 456 lettuce. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 68:220–278Google Scholar
  47. Phalen A von der, Crnko J (1965) El virus del mosaico de la lechuga (Marmor lactucae Holmes) en Mendoza y Buenos Aires. Rev Invest Agr B Aires Ser 52:25–31Google Scholar
  48. Prowidenti R, Robinson RW, Shail JW (1980) A source of resistance to a strain of cucumber mosaic virus in Lactuca saligna L. Horci 15:528–529Google Scholar
  49. Prowidenti R, Robinson RW, Shail JW (1984) Incidence of broad bean wilt virus in lettuce in New York State and sources of resistance. HortSci 19:569–570Google Scholar
  50. Reinert RA, Tingey DT, Carter HB (1972) Ozone induced foliar injury in lettuce and radish cultivars. J Am Soc Hortici 97:711–714Google Scholar
  51. Robinson RW, Mreight JO, Ryder EJ (1983) The genes of lettuce and closely related species. Plant Breed Rev 1:267–293Google Scholar
  52. Ryder EJ (1979a) Leafy salad vegetables. AVI, Westport, ConnGoogle Scholar
  53. Ryder EJ (1979b) Vanguard 75 lettuce. Hort Sci 14:284–286Google Scholar
  54. Ryder EJ (1979c) Effects of big vein resistance and temperature on disease incidence and percentage of plants harvested of crisphead lettuce. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 104:665–668Google Scholar
  55. Ryder EJ (1980) Lettuce breeding in the United States: A short history. Proc Eucarpia Meet Leafy vegetables, pp 74–77Google Scholar
  56. Sasaki H (1974) Physiological and morphological studies on development of vegetable crops: Organ formation of lettuce tissue cultured in vitro. J Hokkaido Univ Educ Sect IIB 26:17–27Google Scholar
  57. Sasaki H (1979) Physiological and morphological studies on development of vegetable crops. VI. Effect of several auxins cytokinins and cytokinin ribosides on the adventitious bud formation of lettuce hypocotyl tissue cultured in vitro. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 48:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sequeira L (1970) Resistance to corky root rot of lettuce. Plant Dis Rep 54:754–758Google Scholar
  59. Shannon MC, Mreight JD (1984) Salt tolerance of lettuce introductions. HortSci 19:673–675Google Scholar
  60. Sibi M (1976) La notion de programme génétique chez les végétaux supérieurs II Aspect expérimental: obtention de variants par culture de tissue in vitro surLactuca sativa L.; apparition de vigueur chez les croisements. Ann Amelior Plantes 26:523–547Google Scholar
  61. Sibi M (1984) Heredity of epigenetic-variant plants from culture in vitro. In: Lange WA, Zeven AC, Hagenboom NE (eds) Efficiency in plant breeding. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp 196–198Google Scholar
  62. Smeets L (1977) Analysis of the differences in growth between five lettuce cultivars marking the development in lettuce breeding for winter production. Euphytica 26:655–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thompson RC (1943) Further studies on interspecific genetic relationships in Lactuca. J Agric Res 66:41–48Google Scholar
  64. Thompson RC (1944) Lettuce varieties and culture. USDA Farmers Bull 1953Google Scholar
  65. Thompson RC, Ryder EJ (1961) Description and pedigrees of nine varieties of lettuce. USDA Tech Bull 1244Google Scholar
  66. Thompson RC, Whitaker TW, Kosar WF (1941) Interspecific genetic relationships inLactuca. J Agric Res 63:91–107Google Scholar
  67. United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ed) (1984) Output and utilization of farm produce in the United Kingdom 1977 to 1983Google Scholar
  68. US Department of Agriculture — USDA (ed) (1984) USDA agricultural statistics. US Gov Print Off, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  69. Webb DF, Torres LD, Fobert P (1984) Interactions of growth regulators, expiant age, and culture environment controlling organogenesis from lettuce cotyledons in vitro. Can J Bot 62:586–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Whitaker TW (1969) Salads for everyone — a look at the lettuce plant. Econ Bot 23:261–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Whitaker TW, McCollum GD (1954) Shattering in lettuce — Its inheritance and biological significance. Bull Torrey Bot Club 81:104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Whithaker TW, Kishaba AN, Toba HH (1974) Host-parasite interrelatons of Lactuca saligna L. and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 99:74–78Google Scholar
  73. White PR (1943) Handbook of plant tissue culture. Cattell, Lancaster, PennCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wurr DCE, Fellows JR (1984) The growth of three crisp lettuce varieties from different sowing dates. J Agric Sci Cambridge 102:733–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zink FW, Duffus JE (1972) Association of beet western yellows and lettuce mosaic viruses with internal rib necrosis of lettuce. Phytopathology 62:1141–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zitter TA, Guzman VL (1974) Incidence of lettuce mosaic and bidens mottle viruses in lettuce and scarole fields in Florida. Plant Dis Rep 58:1087–1091Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Alconero
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Department of Agriculture, New York State Agricultural Experiment StationARS, Plant Germplasm ResourcesGenevaUSA

Personalised recommendations