Advertisement

General Aspects of Tritium

  • Rainer Lässer
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 9)

Abstract

In this chapter, important background information about tritium, such as its production, toxicity, inventories on earth, the discharge to the environment and its handling, are discussed.

Keywords

Fusion Reactor Tritiated Water Tritium Concentration Tritium Content Fission Yield 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 2.1
    UNSCEAR. Ionizing Radiation: Sources and Biological Effects (United Nations, New York 1982)Google Scholar
  2. 2.2
    F.J.L. Bindon: Nucl. Eng. 27, 52 (1986)Google Scholar
  3. 2.3
    F. Luykx, G. Fraser. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 16, 31 (1986)Google Scholar
  4. 2.3a
    H.T. Peterson, Jr., D.A. Baker. Fusion Technology 8, 2544 (1985)Google Scholar
  5. 2.4
    F. Luykx, G. Fraser. European Seminar on the risks from tritium exposure, Mol 1982, report EUR 9065 (1982)Google Scholar
  6. 2.5
    J.A. Miskel: In Tritium, ed. by A.A. Moghissi, M.W. Carter, Conf. 710809, Las Vegas, Nevada (1973)Google Scholar
  7. 2.6
    M.S. Terpilak: Radiological Health Data and Reports 12, 180 (1971)Google Scholar
  8. 2.7
    M. Eisenbud: Tritium in the Environment, NCRP report No.62 (1978)Google Scholar
  9. 2.8
    E. Teuchert, private communication.Google Scholar
  10. 2.9
    Int’l Commission on Radiological Protection “Limits for intakes of radionuclides by workers” ICRP-Publ. 30, Part 1, (Pergamon, London 1978)Google Scholar
  11. 2.10
    Verordnung über den Schutz vor Schäden durch ionisierende Strahlen (Strahlenschutzverordnung StrlSchV), (BGBl I, 2905; BGBl I, 1977, pp. 184, 269) 13.10.1976Google Scholar
  12. 2.11
    D.C. Lloyd, A.A. Edwards, J.S. Prosser, A. Auf der Maur, A. Etzweiler, U. Weickhardt, U. Gössi, L. Geiger, U. Noelpp, H. Rösler: Radiation Protection Dosimetry 15, 191 (1986)Google Scholar
  13. 2.12
    R.M. Brown: Fusion Technology 8, 2539 (1985)Google Scholar
  14. 2.13
    G.L. Kulcinski, J.M. Dupony, E. Ishino: J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 3 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 2.14
    H. Djerassi, J.L. Rouyer: Radiation Protection Dosimetry 16, 37 (1986)Google Scholar
  16. 2.15
    P.J. Dinner, W. Gulden: Radiation Protection Dosimetry 16, 39 (1986)Google Scholar
  17. 2.15a
    P.J. Dinner, S.K. Sood, M. Chazalon, O.K. Kreton: Fusion Technology 8, 2228 (1985)Google Scholar
  18. 2.15b
    P. Rocco, R. Kirchmann: Radiation Protection Dosimetry 16, 49 (1986)Google Scholar
  19. 2.16
    V.A. Maroni, E.H. van Deventer: J. Nucl. Mater. 85 and 86, 257 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 2.17
    G. Casini, P. Rocco, Ponti: Technical Note No. I.04.B1, 85.156 ISPRA, Italy (1985)Google Scholar
  21. 2.17a
    O. Edlund: Radiation Protection Dosimetry 16, 27 (1986)Google Scholar
  22. 2.17b
    P. Rocco, R. Kirchmann: Radiation Protection Dosimetry 16, 49 (1986)Google Scholar
  23. 2.18
    R. Lässer, K.-H. Klatt, D. Triefenbach, J.L. Hemmerich: J. Nucl. Mater. 148, 145 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 2.19
    H. Weichselgartner. Vakuum-Technik 34, 236 (1986)Google Scholar
  25. 2.20
    J.L. Hemmerich: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6, 144 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 2.21
    J.L. Anderson, D.O. Coffin, C.R. Walthers: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1, 849 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 2.22
    H. Weichselgartner, H. Frischmuth, A. Stimmelmayr, A. El-Sharnouby: Proc. 13th SOFT, Varese (1984) p.441Google Scholar
  28. 2.22a
    H. Frischmuth, J. Perchermeier, A. Stimmelmayr, H. Weichselgartner. In Proc. 12th Symp. on Fusion Technology (SOFT 1982) Vol. 1 (Pergamon, London 1983) p.549Google Scholar
  29. 2.23
    R.C. Jones, W.H. Furry: Rev. Mod. Phys. 18, 151 (1946)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 2.23a
    W.M. Rutherford, C.N. Lindsag: Fusion Technology 8, 2278 (1985)Google Scholar
  31. 2.24
    P.C. Stangeby, J.E. Allen: J. Appl. Phys. 54, 14 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 2.25
    T. Tanifuji, K. Noda, S. Nasu, K. Uchida: J. Nucl. Mater. 95, 108 (1980)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 2.26
    A. Ohara, Y. Sakuma, M. Okamoto: J. Nucl. Mater. 102, 356 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 2.27
    K. Kurasawa, H. Watanabe, G.W. Hollenberg, Y. Iskii, A. Nishimura, H. Yoshida, Y. Naruse, M. Aizawa, H. Ohno, S. Konishi: J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 265 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 2.28
    J.M. Miller, S.R. Bokwa, R.A. Verall: J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 294 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 2.29
    D.L. Baldwin, G.W. Hollenberg: J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 305 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 2.30
    C.H. Wu: J. Nucl. Mater. 114, 30 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 2.31
    M. Hoch: J. Nucl. Mater. 120, 102 (1984)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 2.32
    M. Saeki, M. Nakashima, Y. Aratono, E. Tachikawa: J. Nucl. Mater. 120, 267 (1984)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 2.33
    E. Roth, F. Botter, M. Briec, M. Rostaing, H. Werle, R.G. Clemmen J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 275 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 2.34
    H. Kwast, R. Conrad, P. Kennedy, A.J. Flipot, J.D. Elen: J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 300 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 2.35
    M. Briec, F. Botter, J.J. Abassin, R. Benoit, P. Chenebault, M. Masson, B. Rasneur, P. Sciers, H. Werle, E. Roth: J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 357 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 2.36
    K. Noda, M. Arita, Y. Ishii, H. Saka, T. Imura, K. Kuroda, H. Watanabe: J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 353 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 2.37
    M.C. Billone, Y.Y. Liu, R.B. Poeppel, J.L. Routbort, K.C. Goretta, D.S. Kuppermann: J. Nucl. Mater. 141–143, 282 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 2.38
    P.J.D. Kind, P. Kupschus, G.W. O’Hara (eds.): JET Joint Undertaking, Annual Report 1984, EUR 10222 EN, EUR-JET-AR7 (August 1985)Google Scholar
  46. 2.39
    JET Joint Undertaking Progress Report 1987, EUR 11579 EN, EUR-JET-PR5 (March 1988)Google Scholar
  47. 2.40
    J.P. Coad, R. Behrisch, H. Bergsaker, J. Ehrenberg, В. Emmoth, J. Partridge, G. Saibene, R. Sartori, J.C.B. Simpson, Wang Wen Min: To be published in J. Nucl. Mater. 1988Google Scholar
  48. 2.41
    R. Hancox: To be publishedGoogle Scholar
  49. 2.42
    A.H. Dombra, M. Carney. In Proc. 13th Symp. of Fusion Technology (SOFT 1984) p.473Google Scholar
  50. 2.43
    W.J. Holtslander, R.E. Johnson, F.B. Gravelle, CM. Shultz: Fusion Technol. 10, 1340 (1986)Google Scholar
  51. 2.44
    R.D. Penzhorn, M. Glugla: Fusion Technol. 10, 1345 (1986)Google Scholar
  52. 2.45
    R. Lorscheider: In Herkunft, Handhabung und Verbleib von Tritium, RSII–510 321/196-SR 165 (1980)Google Scholar
  53. 2.46
    Handling of Tritium-Bearing Wastes, Techn. Rept. Series No.203, IAEA, Vienna (1981), ISBN 92-0-125081-9Google Scholar
  54. 2.47
    Management of Tritium at Nuclear Facilities, Techn. Rept. Series No.234, IAEA, Vienna (1984), ISBN 92-0-125084-3Google Scholar
  55. 2.48
    H. Brücher, E. Merz: Kernforschungsanlage Jülich, JÜL-2099 (1986), ISSN 0366-0885Google Scholar
  56. 2.49
    H. Brücher, K. Hartmann: Kernforschungsanlage Jülich, JÜL-1838 (1983), ISSN 0366-0885Google Scholar
  57. 2.50
    P.H. Brücher: Radioactive Waste Management and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle 7, 195 (1986)Google Scholar
  58. 2.51
    W.J. Holtslander, J.M. Yaraskavitch: Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. AECL-7151 (1981)Google Scholar
  59. 2.52
    W.J. Holtslander, J.M. Yaraskavitch: Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. AECL-7757 (1982)Google Scholar
  60. 2.53
    N. Ebeling: Kernforschungsanlage Jülich, JÜL-2010 (1985), ISSN 0366-0885Google Scholar
  61. 2.54
    K. Krejci, A. Zeller, Jr.: In Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment, Proc. Symp. San Francisco, 1978 (IAEA, Vienna 1979) p.65Google Scholar
  62. 2.55
    G. Wehnen In Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment, Proc. Symp. San Francisco, 1978 (IAEA, Vienna 1979) p.79Google Scholar
  63. 2.56
    F. Combs, R.J. Doda: In Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment, Proc. Symp. San Francisco, 1978 (IAEA, Vienna 1979) p.93Google Scholar
  64. 2.57
    M. Damiani, R. Getraud, A. Senn: Sonderheft NUCLEX 1972, p.41Google Scholar
  65. 2.57a
    P.H. Pautrot, M. Damiani: in Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes, ed. by H.K. Rae, American Chemical Society Symp. Ser. No.68 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 2.58
    G. Vasaru (ed): Separarea Tritiului (Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1987)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rainer Lässer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für FestkörperforschungKernforschungsanlage JülichJülichGermany
  2. 2.JET Joint UndertakingAbingdon, OxfordshireUK

Personalised recommendations