Surfaces and Interfaces
Several important phenomena involve surfaces, some of them concerning only crystal atoms and others involving impurities too. Those concerning only crystal atoms are: surface relaxation (i.e., the displacement of planes close to the surface from their lattice positions) and reconstruction (i.e., the formation of a specific surface structure with symmetry different from that of the bulk crystal). Phenomena which involve impurities are: segregation at the surface; formation of surface compounds, this process possibly being the final result of segregation at the surface; chemisorption from gases or liquids, terminating at the first layer or proceeding to the formation of multilayered structures. Oxidation is an important example of the last process. The major technological interest is not in the silicon surface itself, but rather in the Si-SiO2 interface, because of its very low defect density.
KeywordsSilicon Atom Oxide Thickness Interface Trap Fixed Charge Steam Oxidation
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