Cognitive Therapy of Phobias

  • J. Cottraux
  • E. Mollard


The cognitive approach to phobias (Beck and Emery 1985) emphasizes the mediating role of thought patterns and mental images that allow individual adaptation to internal and external stimuli. Cognitions themselves are not considered a cause of anxiety and avoidance behavior but represent an intervening information-processing system whose dysfunction may result from the interaction of an innate biological vulnerability with a faulty cognitive learning history. Therapeutic reduction of fear and avoidance is thought to result from the modification of maladaptive conscious or unconscious thought patterns.


Social Phobia Panic Disorder Cognitive Therapy Panic Attack Irrational Belief 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler D, Price J (1985) Relation of agoraphobics’ health locus of control orientation to severity of agoraphobia. Psychol Rep 56: 619–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and statistical manual, 3rd edn. APA, Washington, DC, pp 225–239.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd edn, revised version (DSM III-R). APA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura A (1977) Social learning theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp 84–85.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow D, Cohen A, Wadel MB, Vermilyea B, Klosko J, Blanchard E, Di Nardo R (1984) Panic and generalized anxiety disorders. Nature and treatment. Behav Ther 15: 431–449.Google Scholar
  6. Beck AT, Emery G (1985) Anxiety disorders and phobias. A cognitive perspective. Basic, New York, pp 38–66.Google Scholar
  7. Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emery G (1979) Cognitive therapy of depression. Guilford, New York, pp 142–164.Google Scholar
  8. Biran M, Wilson GT (1981) Treatment of phobic disorders using cognitive and exposure methods: a self-efficacy analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 49(6): 886–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonn J, Readhead C, Timmons B (1984) Enhanced adaptative behavioural response in agoraphobic patients pretreated with breathing retraining. Lancet 2: 665–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borkovec TD (1978) Self-efficacy: cause or reflexion of behavioural change? Adv Behav Res Ther 1: 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowlby J (1975) Attachment and loss, vol 2, Separation, anxiety and anger. Pelican, London, pp 334–355.Google Scholar
  12. Breger L, McGaugh JL (1965) Critique and reformulation of “learning-theory’ approaches to psychotherapy and neurosis. Psychol Bull 63: 338–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clark D (1986) A cognitive approach to panic. Behav Res Ther 4(24): 461–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark D, Salkovskis P, Chalkley A (1985) Respiratory control as a treatment for panic attacks. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 16(1): 23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cottraux J, Mollard E (1986) Les phobies: perspectives nouvelles. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, pp 60–65.Google Scholar
  16. Coué E (1956) La maitrise de soi-même par l’autosuggestion consciente. Oliven, Paris, pp 9–27.Google Scholar
  17. Eastman C, Marzillier JS (1984) Theoretical and methodological difficulties in Bandura’s self-efficacy theory. Cog Ther Res 8(3): 213–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ellis A (1962) Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Lyle Stuart-Citadel, New York, pp 35–59.Google Scholar
  19. Ellis A (1979) A note on the treatment of agoraphobics with cognitive modification with prolonged exposure in vivo. Behav Res Ther 17(2): 162–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ellis A, Grieger R (1977) RET handbook of rational emotive therapy. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 3–33.Google Scholar
  21. Emmelkamp P (1982) Phobic and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Theory, research, and practice. Plenum, New York, pp 40–41.Google Scholar
  22. Emmelkamp P, Kuipers A (1979) Agoraphobia: a follow-up study four years after treatment. Br J Psychiatry 134: 352–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Emmelkamp P, Mersch P (1982) Cognition and exposure in vivo in the treatment of agoraphobics. Short term and delayed effects. Cog Ther Res 6(1): 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Emmelkamp P, Kuipers A, Eggerraat J (1978) Cognitive modification versus prolonged exposure in vivo: a comparison with agoraphobics as subjects. Behav Res Ther 16: 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Emmelkamp P, Brilman E, Kuiper H, Mersch P (1986) The treatment of agoraphobia: a comparison of self instructional training, rational-emotive therapy, and exposure of vivo. Behav Modif (6): 643–649.Google Scholar
  26. Garssen B, Veenendaal W, Bloeminck R (1983) Agoraphobia and the hyperventilation syndrome. Behav Res Ther 21(6): 643–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gelder MG (1986) Panic attacks: new approaches to an old problem. Br J Psychiatry 149: 346–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goldstein AJ, Chambless DJ (1978) A re-analysis of agoraphobia. Behav Ther 9: 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gorman J, Liebowitz M, Klein OF (1984) Panic disorder and agoraphobia. Upjohn, Kalamazoo, pp 17–19.Google Scholar
  30. Gray J (1971) The psychology of fear and stress. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 196–218.Google Scholar
  31. Griez E, van den Hout A (1986) CO2 inhalation in the treatment of panic attacks. Behav Res Ther 24(2): 145–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guidano VF, Liotti G (1983) Cognitive processes and emotional disorders. Guilford, New York pp 204–242.Google Scholar
  33. Hibbert G (1984) Ideational components of anxiety: their origin and content. Br J Psychiatry 144: 618–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hollon SD, Kriss MR (1984) Cognitive factors in clinical research and practice. Clin Psychol Rev 4: 35–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jerrelman A, Jansson L, Ost LR (1986) Cognitive and physiological reactivity and the effects of different behavioral methods in the treatment of social phobias. Behav Res Ther 24(2): 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kandel E (1983) From metapsychology to molecular biology: explorations into the nature of anxiety. Am J Psychiatry 140: 1277–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Klein DF (1981) Anxiety reconceptualized. In: Klein DF, Rabkin JG (eds) Anxiety, new research and changing concepts. Raven, New York, pp 235–263.Google Scholar
  38. Ladouceur R (1983) Participant modeling with or without cognitive treatment for phobias. J Consult Clin Psychol 51(6): 942–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Last CL (1984) Cognitive treatment of phobias. Prog Behav Modif 16: 65–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lazarus AA (1976) Multi-modal behavior therapy. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 9–19.Google Scholar
  41. Lelliot P, Marks I, Monteiro W, Tsakiris F, Noshirvani H (1986) Agoraphobics five years after imipramine and exposure: outcome and predictors. (in press).Google Scholar
  42. Ley R (1985) Agoraphobia, the panic attack, and the hyperventilation syndrome. Behav Res Ther 23(1): 79–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lum L (1976) The syndrome of habitual chronic hyperventilation. In: Hill OW (ed) Modern trends in psychosomatic medicine, 3rd edn. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  44. Luria A (1961) The role of speech in the regulation of normal and abnormal behaviors. Liveright, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Margraf J, Ehlers A, Roth WT (1986) Biological models of panic disorder and agoraphobia — a review. Behav Res Ther 24(5): 553–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marks I (1981) Cure and care of neuroses. Theory and practice of behavioural psychotherapy. Wiley, New York, pp 45–66.Google Scholar
  47. Mavissakalian M, Michelson L, Greenwald D, Kornblith S, Greenwald M (1983) Cognitive-behavioural treatment of agoraphobia: paradoxical intention versus self-statement training. Behav Res Ther 21(1): 75–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meichenbaum D (1977) Cognitive-behavior modification: an integrative approach. Plenum, New York, pp 17–54.Google Scholar
  49. Monti PR, Zwick WR, Warzak WJ (1986) Social skills and irrational beliefs: a preliminary report. Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 17(1): 11–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Piaget J (1964) Six études de psychologic Gonthier, Genève, pp 7-86.Google Scholar
  51. Rachman S (1984) Agoraphobia. A safety signal perspective. Behav Res Ther 22(1): 59–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rotter JB (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychol Monogr 80: 1–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Salkovskis P, Jones D, Clark D (1986) Respiratory control in the treatment of panic attacks: replication and extension with concurrent measurement of behaviour and p CO2. Br J Psychiatry 148: 526–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schwartz RM, Garamoni GL (1984) The internal dialogue and anxiety: asymmetries between positive and negative coping thoughts. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  55. Sheehan D, Sheehan K (1982) The classification of phobic disorders. Int J Psychiatry Med 12(4): 243–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stefanek ME, Eisler RM (1983) The current status of cognitive variables in assertiveness training. Prog Behav Modif 15: 277–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Stravinsky A, Marks I, Yule W (1982) Social skills problems in neurotic out-patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 39: 1378–1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thorpe RE, Burns LE (1983) The agoraphobic syndrome. Wiley, New York, pp 21–22.Google Scholar
  59. Thyer B, Nesse R, Cameron D, Curtis G (1985) Agoraphobia: a test of the separation anxiety hypothesis. Behav Res Ther 23(1): 75–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Timmermans P, Roder E, Hunting P (1986) The effects of the absence of the mother on the acquisition of phobic behaviour in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Behav Res Ther 24(1): 67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tissot R, Zutter A, Jorio G, Gaillard J, Burgmeister J (1980) Choix des symptomes dans les névroses: névroses hystériques et névroses phobico-obsessionnelles. Ann Med Psychol (Paris) 138(9): 1037–1059.Google Scholar
  62. Tversky, Kahnemann (1974) Judgement under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science 185: 1124–1131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. van der Molen GM, van den Hout MA, Vroemen J, Lousberg H, Griez E (1986) Cognitive determinants of lactate induced anxiety. Behav Res Ther 24(6): 677–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Williams S, Rappoport A (1983) Cognitive treatment in the natural environment for agoraphobia. Behav Ther 14: 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wolpe J (1975) La pratique de la therapie comportementale. Masson, Paris, pp 15–26.Google Scholar
  66. Zajonc R (1980) Feeling and thinking. Preferences need no inferences. Am Psychol 35: 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Cottraux
    • 1
  • E. Mollard
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Psychologie Medicale, Hôpital NeurologiquePsychiatre des hopitaux, charge de cours a l’Universite Lyon 1LyonFrance

Personalised recommendations